Classification of hypotheses on the advantage of amphimixis.

  title={Classification of hypotheses on the advantage of amphimixis.},
  author={Alexey S. Kondrashov},
  journal={The Journal of heredity},
  volume={84 5},
  • A. Kondrashov
  • Published 1 September 1993
  • Biology
  • The Journal of heredity
A classification of hypotheses on the advantage of amphimixis over apomixis is presented. According to "Immediate Benefit" hypotheses, amphimixis is advantageous regardless of reciprocal gene exchange, because either it directly increases fitness of the progeny, reduces the deleterious mutation rate, or makes selection more efficient. In contrast, "Variation and Selection" hypotheses attribute the advantage of amphimixis to the reciprocal gene exchange that alters genetic variability and… 

Concordance of the predictions of a simulation model for the evolutionary advantage of sex with observational evidence

A simulation model is proposed, based on the “classic” hypothesis that sex is advantageous because it allows faster attainment of favourable genetic combinations, and predicts the trends of ecological conditions in which sexual/asexual species of the same taxonomic group (or sexual/asesxual stages of thesame species) will prevail.


The results suggest that the all- else-equal assumption is correct, and that a cost of males exists in natural sexual populations of these snails.

Both Costs and Benefits of Sex Correlate With Relative Frequency of Asexual Reproduction in Cyclically Parthenogenic Daphnia pulicaria Populations

Both the costs and benefits of sex, as measured by changes in means and variances in life-history traits, increase substantially with decreasing frequency of sex.

Advantages of sexual reproduction.

  • J. Crow
  • Biology
    Developmental genetics
  • 1994
A test of the mutation load hypothesis for sexual reproduction is to find whether deleterious mutation rates in general are this high--as Drosophila data argue.

The significance of sexual reproduction for local adaptation in Taraxacum

Dandelions (Taraxacum) form an agamic complex with sexual, diploid genotypes and asexual (mainly) triploid genotypes, a convenient species to study differences in adaptation between the two models of reproduction, though the difference in ploidy level complicates the picture.

Sex and aging: A comparison between two phenoptotic phenomena

In this review, sex and aging are analyzed as phenoptotic phenomena, and the similarities between them are investigated.

Inbreeding Depression Varies with Investment in Sex in a Facultative Parthenogen

The magnitude of fitness reduction in inbred offspring increased as population-level investment in sex decreased, but there was less of a fitness reduction following sex in the field-produced daughters, suggesting that many field-collected mothers were involved in outcross mating.

An experimental test for synergistic epistasis and its application in Chlamydomonas.

A new test for synergistic epistasis that considers the skewness of the log fitness distribution of offspring from a cross of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas moewussii suggests a possible alternative explanation for the general observation that sex is related to constant environments, where selection on K predominates, while asexual reproduction is found in more variable environments,Where selection on r is more important.

The effect of sex on the mean and variance of fitness in facultatively sexual rotifers

Compared to asexually derived offspring, it is found that sexual offspring have lower mean fitness and less genetic variance in fitness.

Rate of Adaptation in Sexuals and Asexuals: A Solvable Model of the Fisher–Muller Effect

A detailed analysis of the Fisher–Muller mechanism for a model genome consisting of two loci with an infinite number of beneficial alleles each and multiplicative fitness effects shows that, for a particular, natural mutation scheme, the speed of adaptation in sexuals is twice as large as in asexuals.



Deleterious mutations as an evolutionary factor. II. Facultative apomixis and selfing.

T truncation selection against deleterious mutations may be a factor supporting obligate or facultative sex despite the twofold advantage of apomixis or selfing.

Sexuality and the Components of Environmental Uncertainty: Clues from Geographic Parthenogenesis in Terrestrial Animals

It is suggested that the changing genotypes of the organisms with which an individual interacts are the major source of this biotic uncertainty; that, once evolved, sex in one population may lead to the contagious spread and persistence of sex in a community of highly interacting individuals.

The "balance" argument and the evolution of sex.

Benefits and handicaps of sexual reproduction.

According to theories of regulation of recombination systems, a wide array of structural and ecological features of organisms, including sexuality vs. asexuality, are adjusted together to produce a supposedly optimal supply of genetic recombinants.


  • C. Lively
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1992
There was no support for any of the hypotheses for the maintenance of sex that rely on selection for reproductive assurance to explain the distribution of parthenogenesis in the freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and the results were consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis.

The influence of the mating system on the maintenance of genetic variability in polygenic characters.

The present models show that with the additional features of mutation and selection, in a large population, the mating system has no influence on the amount of genetic variability maintained by additive genes.

Short-term selection for recombination among mutually antagonistic species

In this paper, it is shown how the mutual antagonism of two species can lead to a cyclical game in which high-recombination alleles can have a large short-term selective advantage in a fully defined genetic model.

Survivorship and Growth of Sexually and Asexually Derived Larvae of Alsophila pometaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

In this study, geometrid moth larvae derived from both kinds of reproduction were reared on different host plants and the goal was to assess larval viability and growth in an ecologically relevant context and thus partially characterize the fitness of sexual and asexual reproduction.

More on selection for and against recombination.


If sexual and asexual populations were isolated for a sufficiently long period, segregation might impart a fitness advantage upon sexuals that could compensate for the cost of sex and allow sexuals to outcompete asexuals upon their reunion.