Classification of Asphyxia: The Need for Standardization

@article{Sauvageau2010ClassificationOA,
  title={Classification of Asphyxia: The Need for Standardization},
  author={Anny Sauvageau and Elie Boghossian},
  journal={Journal of Forensic Sciences},
  year={2010},
  volume={55}
}
The classification of asphyxia and the definitions of subtypes are far from being uniform, varying widely from one textbook to another and from one paper to the next. [] Key Method Suffocation subdivides in smothering, choking, and confined spaces/entrapment/vitiated atmosphere. Strangulation includes three separate forms: ligature strangulation, hanging, and manual strangulation. As for mechanical asphyxia, it encompasses positional asphyxia as well as traumatic asphyxia. The rationales behind this proposed…
Commentary on: Sauvageau A, Boghossian E. Classification of asphyxia: the need for standardization. J Forensic Sci 2010;55(5):1259‐67.
  • R. Byard
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of forensic sciences
  • 2011
TLDR
Asphyxial episodes can be divided into those where there is a failure in the supply, transfer, transport, or uptake and utilization of oxygen: using a more pathophysiological system for classifying asphyxia that derives from underlying lethal mechanisms.
Diagnostics of mechanical asphyxia – experience of foreign countries (literature review)
TLDR
To establish modern, global trends in the diagnosis of mechanical asphyxia, it is necessary to use modern research methods that should expand the possibilities of forensic diagnosis of the viability of injuries in terms of evidence-based medicine and provide forensic experts with a scientific basis for their results.
Study of Postmortem Findings of Neck Structures in Cases of Asphyxial Deaths
TLDR
The incidence of asphyxial deaths due to constriction of the neck is more in males as compared to females and in most of these cases; the mode of death is hanging.
Strangulation, Suffocation, and Asphyxia
TLDR
Because of significant species differences in the physical, biological, and behavioral responses to strangulation, suffulation, or mechanical asphyxia, veterinary pathologists must be cautious when extrapolating information from the medical forensic literature to their cases.
L'asphyxie en médecine légale : une étude rétrospective de six ans sur les suffocations non-chimiques au Québec
TLDR
This is the first paper to ever portray a systematic study of non- chemical suffocation deaths in forensic setting and the results are concordant with the textbook literature, therefore supporting common knowledge related to manner of death in non-chemical suffocation.
Letter to the Editor—A Revisitation of the Most Common Methods of Autoerotic Activity Leading to Death Based on the New Standardized Classification of Asphyxia
TLDR
A revisitation of the typical methods of autoerotic deaths, based on the standardized classification of asphyxia, seems imperative at this time, because of the recent standardization of the classification ofAsphyxia.
Sudden deaths from positional asphyxia
TLDR
This report describes one case of adult who was found positioned in a way that led to eventual asphyxiation and the current criteria for positional asphyxia are based on the obstruction of normal gas exchange caused by the body position, the impossibility to move to another position, and the exclusion of other causes of death.
Nondrowning Asphyxia in Veterinary Forensic Pathology
  • B. McEwen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Veterinary pathology
  • 2016
TLDR
The terminology, classification, mechanisms, and lesions associated with asphyxial deaths in companion animals and significant comparative differences of the response to various types of asphyxia in animals and people are highlighted.
An overview of the mechanical asphyxia with the main emphasis on hanging
TLDR
In this review, selected studies recently reported on suicidal hangings are selected according to the criteria used to determine the method of death in the autopsy records of the Department of the Forensic Medicine and Criminalistics at the Medical Faculty in Rijeka (from 1966 to the beginning of 2017).
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 85 REFERENCES
Positional Asphyxia: Reflection on 2 Cases
TLDR
To illustrate the main physiopathologic and diagnostic causes of positional asphyxia, the authors report 2 cases taken from the records of events that came under the observation of the Medico-Legal Sector of Bari University Hospital throughout the last 10 years.
Forensic Types of Ischemia and Asphyxia
  • Medicine
  • 2005
TLDR
In this part, the primary forensic types of ischemia and asphyxia are described, but the author is also aware of natural types of asphyxiation, i.e., diseases of the lungs and the heart (prevention/reduction of the circulation of oxygenated blood).
Asphyxial Deaths: A Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature
  • D. Azmak
  • Medicine
    The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology
  • 2006
TLDR
Although it was varying according to the methods of asphyxiation, suicide was found to be the manner of death in the majority of the cases.
Positional asphyxiation in adults. A series of 30 cases from the Dade and Broward County Florida Medical Examiner Offices from 1982 to 1990.
TLDR
Over a 9-year period, 30 cases of positional (or postural) asphyxia were identified in the Dade and Broward County (Florida) Medical Examiner Offices with no significant sex or racial differences.
Asphyxial deaths and petechiae: a review.
TLDR
It is suggested that a clear, physiologically based understanding of the pathogenesis of petechiae of the head is critical for their appropriate interpretation, and that they are the product of purely mechanical vascular phenomena, unrelated to asphyxia or hypoxia.
The brassiere 'sign' - a distinctive marker in crush asphyxia.
  • R. Byard
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical forensic medicine
  • 2005
Pulmonary giant cells and traumatic asphyxia
TLDR
Since polynuclear giant cells occurred in similar amounts in healthy, functionally normal lungs of non-asphyxiated individuals, the detection of such cells cannot be regarded as a reliable indicator for asphyxiation.
...
...