Classification and Genomic Diversity of Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

@article{Smith2018ClassificationAG,
  title={Classification and Genomic Diversity of Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.},
  author={Donald B. Smith and P. Simmonds},
  journal={Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine},
  year={2018},
  volume={8 9}
}
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are significant human pathogens and are responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of severe acute hepatitis worldwide. Genetically, both viruses are heterogeneous and are classified into several genotypes that differ in their geographical distribution and risk group association. There is, however, little evidence that variants of HAV or HEV differ antigenically or in their propensity to cause severe disease. Genetically more divergent… Expand
Hepatitis E virus: host tropism and zoonotic infection.
TLDR
Recent advances in HEV host range, and cross-species and zoonotic transmission are discussed, and a large number of animal HEV variants do provide an opportunity to develop useful animal models for HEV. Expand
Enterically Transmitted Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis and the Discovery of Hepatitis E Virus.
The recognition of hepatitis E as a discreet disease entity in the late 1970s followed the development of serological tests for hepatitis A and the discovery that large waterborne outbreaks ofExpand
Comparative Pathology of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infection.
TLDR
In general, animals infected with these viruses recapitulate the histologic lesions seen in infected humans, but typically with less severe clinical and histopathological manifestations. Expand
Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.
TLDR
This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to the current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Expand
Animal Models for Hepatitis E Virus
TLDR
An overview of several animal models for HEV is given, which indicate their main characteristics, and how they may contribute to the understanding of the basic aspects of the viral life cycle and cross-species infection, the study of pathogenesis, and the evaluation of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies. Expand
Small Animal Models of Hepatitis E Virus Infection.
TLDR
The current understanding of small animal models for HEV is reviewed, finding that new models provide several advantages over previous nonhuman primate models of hepatitis E infection and will facilitate studies of pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanisms of virus replication, and vaccine and antiviral agent development. Expand
Emerging hepatitis E virus compared with hepatitis A virus: A new sanitary challenge
TLDR
The identification of key functional mutations in viral genomes may improve the knowledge of their clinical impact and is analyzed in depth in the present review. Expand
Clinical Manifestations, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hepatitis E Virus Infections
TLDR
This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute HEV infections, including severe hepatitis in patients with pre-existing liver disease and pregnant women and the mechanisms leading to chronic infection in immunocompromised patients and extra-hepatic manifestations. Expand
Presence and Diversity of Different Enteric Viruses in Wild Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus)
TLDR
The results show a high detection rate and diversity ofEnteric viruses in Norway rats in Europe and indicate their significance as vectors for zoonotic transmission of enteric viruses. Expand
Detection and genomic characterization of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 from pigs in Ghana, Africa
TLDR
HEV genotype 3 is highly endemic in pigs in Ghana and likely poses a zoonotic risk to people exposed to pigs, and Sequences obtained in this study form a monophyletic group within HEV genotypes 3. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES
Evolutionary origins of hepatitis A virus in small mammals
TLDR
A targeted search for HAV-related viruses in small mammals sampled globally and discovered highly diversified viruses in bats, rodents, hedgehogs, and shrews demonstrates that these viruses share unique biological features with HAV, including structural, genomic, antigenic, and pathogenic properties. Expand
Bats Worldwide Carry Hepatitis E Virus-Related Viruses That Form a Putative Novel Genus within the Family Hepeviridae
TLDR
Sequence- and distance-based taxonomic evaluations suggested that bat hepeviruses constitute a distinct genus within the family Hepeviridae and that at least three other genera comprising human, rodent, and avian hepe Viruses can be designated, which may imply that hepe viruses invaded mammalian hosts nonrecently and underwent speciation according to their host restrictions. Expand
Evolutionary Origins of Enteric Hepatitis Viruses.
TLDR
Detailed phylogenomic analyses of primate and nonprimate hepatoviruses and hepeviruses are provided to identify conserved and divergent genomic properties and corroborate historical interspecies transmissions by phylogenetic comparisons and recombination analyses. Expand
Genetic Variability and the Classification of Hepatitis E Virus
TLDR
Analysis of complete genome sequences or concatenated ORF1/ORF2 amino acid sequences indicated that HEV variants most closely related to those infecting humans can be consistently divided into six genotypes, which may form the basis for a future genetic classification of HEV into four species. Expand
Hepatitis E virus
TLDR
Hepatitis E virus is an enterically transmitted virus that causes both epidemics and sporadic cases of acute hepatitis in many countries of Asia and Africa but only rarely causes disease in more industrialised countries. Expand
Molecular cloning and sequencing of the Mexico isolate of hepatitis E virus (HEV).
TLDR
Knowing the extent of the sequence variation encountered with HEV will not only aid in the future development of diagnostic and vaccine reagents but also further the understanding of how HEV strain variation might impact the pathological outcome of infection. Expand
Genetic, antigenic and biological differences between strains of hepatitis A virus.
TLDR
Although simian strains recovered from Old World monkeys are cross-reactive in immunoassays employing polyclonal antibodies, these strains have significant antigenic differences from human HAV strains, this is unlikely to pose a problem in controlling HAV infections with active immunization. Expand
Molecular epidemiology of South African strains of hepatitis A virus: 1982–1996
  • M. B. Taylor
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of medical virology
  • 1997
TLDR
Data presented indicate that in SA there is a circulating population of endemic HAVs from two distinct subgenotypes, with a high degree of conservation was noted between the predicted amino acid sequences from SA clinical isolates and isolates from the rest of the world. Expand
Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions.
TLDR
A pairwise comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of 168 bases from 152 wild-type or unique cell culture-adapted strains of hepatitis A virus (HAV) revealed that HAV strains can be differentiated genetically into seven unique genotypes (I to VII), indicating that patterns of endemic transmission can be distinguished from situations in which infections are imported due to travel. Expand
Characterization of a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus.
TLDR
A strain of hepatitis E virus (SAR-55) implicated in an epidemic of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, now called hepatitis E, was characterized extensively and identified as hypervariable. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...