Classification, Functions, and Clinical Relevance of Extracellular Vesicles

@article{vanderPol2012ClassificationFA,
  title={Classification, Functions, and Clinical Relevance of Extracellular Vesicles},
  author={Edwin van der Pol and Anita N. B{\"o}ing and Paul Harrison and Augueste Sturk and Rienk Nieuwland},
  journal={Pharmacological Reviews},
  year={2012},
  volume={64},
  pages={676 - 705}
}
Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells release small, phospholipid-enclosed vesicles into their environment. Why do cells release vesicles? Initial studies showed that eukaryotic vesicles are used to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Although this release of vesicles is beneficial to the cell, the vesicles can also be a danger to their environment, for instance in blood, where vesicles can provide a surface supporting coagulation. Evidence is accumulating that vesicles are cargo containers… 

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) ; Basic Science, Clinical Relevance and Applications

TLDR
Cell-derived extracellular vesicles not only to represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring.

Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

TLDR
The characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, are addressed, and therapeutic options are defined to define therapeutic options.

EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all cellular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of

Extracellular Vesicles: From Biomarkers to Therapeutic Tools

TLDR
This Editorial focuses on recent findings pertaining to EVs in different medical areas, from biomarkers to therapeutic applications, and opens different opportunities in EVs clinical application.

Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles—Promises and Challenges

TLDR
In this review, recent advances and challenges in the field of endothelial extracellular vesicle research are discussed and current problems and limitations regarding isolation and characterization are pointed out.

Biological properties of extracellular vesicles and their physiological functions

TLDR
A comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the physiological roles of EVs is provided, drawing on the unique EV expertise of academia-based scientists, clinicians and industry based in 27 European countries, the United States and Australia.

Extracellular Vesicles and Their Interplay with Biological Membranes

TLDR
This review identifies specific biomarkers detected in various EVs and important biological barriers present in the gastrointestinal, placental, immunological, neurological, lymphatic, pulmonary, renal and intracellular environments, and provides a recommendation on how to engineer EVs as potential drug carriers based on key proteins and lipids involved in crossing these barriers.

MICROSCOPIC AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES ON EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES

TLDR
The results obtained in this study show that transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy are useful methods to study the ultrastructure, diameter and secretion mechanisms of extracellular vesicles as well as their effects on target cell behavior.

Isolation and characterization of urinary extracellular vesicles: implications for biomarker discovery

TLDR
The results of these studies are building the case that urinary extracellular vesicles act as mediators of renal pathophysiology, and this Review focuses on primary data obtained from studies of human urine rather than on data from Studies of laboratory animals or cultured immortalized cells.

Exosomes and Other Extracellular Vesicles with High Therapeutic Potential: Their Applications in Oncology, Neurology, and Dermatology

TLDR
The diversity of EVs and the potential therapeutic options for exosomes as natural drug-delivery vehicles in oncology, neurology, and dermatology are explored and future challenges in clinical translation are reflected.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 371 REFERENCES

Exosomes: immune properties and potential clinical implementations

TLDR
The conclusions of 20 years of studies on the immune properties of exosomes and the most recent advances on their roles and potential uses as markers or as therapeutic tools during pathologies, especially in cancer are described.

Exosome Secretion: Molecular Mechanisms and Roles in Immune Responses

TLDR
The current ideas on exosomes and immune responses are focused on their mechanisms of secretion and the use of this knowledge to elucidate the former issue, and on their capacity to vehicle genetic messages.

Membrane vesicles as conveyors of immune responses

TLDR
The role of membrane vesicles, in particular exosomes, in the communication between immune cells, and between tumour and immune cells is focused on.

Exosomes as intercellular signalosomes and pharmacological effectors.

Exosomes--vesicular carriers for intercellular communication.

Exosomes are released by cultured cortical neurones

Microparticles in cancer.

  • J. Rak
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
  • 2010
Microparticles (MP) are vesicular structures released from cells upon activation, malignant transformation, stress, or death. MP may be derived from the plasma membrane (shed microvesicles), produced

Exosomes contain ubiquitinated proteins.

Intestinal epithelial cells secrete exosome-like vesicles.

TLDR
Human IEC lines secrete exosomes bearing accessory molecules that may be involved in antigen presentation consistent with a model in which IECs may influence antigen presentation in the mucosal or systemic immune system independent of direct cellular contact with effector cells.
...