Class, Race, and the Face: Social Context Modulates the Cross-Race Effect in Face Recognition

  title={Class, Race, and the Face: Social Context Modulates the Cross-Race Effect in Face Recognition},
  author={Edwin R. Shriver and Steven G. Young and Kurt Hugenberg and Michael J. Bernstein and Jason R. Lanter},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={260 - 274}
The current research investigates the hypothesis that the well-established cross-race effect (CRE; better recognition for same-race than for cross-race faces) is due to social-cognitive mechanisms rather than to differential perceptual expertise with same-race and cross-race faces. Across three experiments, the social context in which faces are presented has a direct influence on the CRE. In the first two experiments, middle-class White perceivers show superior recognition for same-race White… Expand
Same faces, different labels: Generating the cross-race effect in face memory with social category information
The results confirm the claim that purely top-down information can yield the well-documented cross-race effect in recognition, and suggest that the bias takes place at encoding rather than testing. Expand
Where the division lies: Common ingroup identity moderates the cross-race facial-recognition effect
This research investigated the hypothesis that better recognition for own-race than other-race faces is a result of social categorization rather than perceptual expertise. More specifically, weExpand
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The race of the study faces significantly affected participants' memory, with better recognition of own-race than other-race faces, however, memory was unaffected by the university affiliation of the faces and by the criterion for their spatial grouping on the display. Expand
Does perceived race affect discrimination and recognition of ambiguous-race faces? A test of the sociocognitive hypothesis.
This work made identical ambiguous-race morphed faces look either Asian or Caucasian by presenting them in Caucasian or Asian face contexts, respectively, but this perceived-race manipulation had no effect on either discrimination or memory for the ambiguous- race faces, despite the presence of the usual OREs in discrimination and recognition of unambiguous Asian and Caucasian faces in the participant population. Expand
Effects of divided attention and social categorization on the own-race bias in face recognition
Perceivers remember own-race faces more accurately than other-race faces (i.e., Own-Race Bias). In the current experiments, we manipulated participants' attentional resources and social groupExpand
They All Look the Same to Me: Exploring the Cross-Race Deficit and the Perceptual Learning Hypothesis
The cross-race recognition deficit (CRD) is a well-studied phenomenon that describes how people looking at faces of a racial out-group have a more difficult time at recognizing and identifying thoseExpand
The influence of ingroup/outgroup categorization on same- and other-race face processing: The moderating role of inter- versus intra-racial context
We investigated the impact of ingroup/outgroup categorization on the encoding of same-race and other-race faces presented in inter-racial and intra-racial contexts (Experiments 1 and 2,Expand
Face recognition in the presence of angry expressions: A target-race effect rather than a cross-race effect
Abstract Perceivers usually recognize the faces of members of their own racial group more accurately than the faces of other races — a difference which is called the cross-race effect (CRE). WhenExpand
Perceived importance of cross-race targets facilitates recall: Support for a motivated account of face memory
The cross-race effect (CRE) is the tendency to remember same-race (SR) faces better than cross-race (CR) faces. While there has been debate about the causes of the CRE, recent perspectives suggestExpand
Power, individuation, and the cross-race recognition deficit
Abstract The well-known cross-race effect (CRE) in facial recognition is observed as better recognition for faces of one’s own race than faces of another race. Across two experiments, this veryExpand


Cross-Race Facial Recognition
Two studies were conducted to increase our knowledge of cross-race recognition of White and Oriental faces and to test the hypothesis that the "cross-race effect" (inferior facial recognition ofExpand
Categorization and individuation in the cross-race recognition deficit : Toward a solution to an insidious problem
Abstract Recent theory and evidence suggest that the Cross-Race Effect (better recognition for same-race (SR) faces than for cross-race (CR) faces) is due to social-cognitive processes ofExpand
Holistic Processing Is Finely Tuned for Faces of One's Own Race
This work tested whether the integration of facial features into a whole representation—holistic processing—was larger for SR than OR faces in Caucasians and Asians without life experience with OR faces, and found that SR faces are processed more holistically than Or faces. Expand
Towards an Exemplar Model of Face Processing: The Effects of Race and Distinctiveness
  • T. Valentine, M. Endo
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology
  • 1992
The ability of this theoretical framework for face recognition to account for the effects of distinctiveness and race is evaluated in four experiments in which white British and Japanese faces served as stimuli and both white and Japanese students acted as subjects. Expand
Race as a visual feature: using visual search and perceptual discrimination tasks to understand face categories and the cross-race recognition deficit.
  • D. Levin
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental psychology. General
  • 2000
These findings support a new explanation for the cross-race (CR) recognition deficit based on feature coding differences between CR and SR faces, and appear incompatible with similarity-based models of face categories. Expand
This article explored the finding that cross-race (CR) faces are more quickly classified by race than same race (SR) faces. T. Valentine and M. Endo (1992) modeled this effect by assuming that faceExpand
Thirty years of investigating the own-race bias in memory for faces: A meta-analytic review
The current article reviews the own-race bias (ORB) phenomenon in memory for human faces, the finding that own-race faces are better remembered when compared with memory for faces of another, lessExpand
Reversibility of the Other-Race Effect in Face Recognition During Childhood
The testing of adults of Korean origin who were adopted by European Caucasian families when they were between the ages of 3 to 9 indicates that the face recognition system remains plastic enough during childhood to reverse the other-race effect. Expand
Expertise and configural coding in face recognition.
The results are largely consistent with the hypothesis that expertise is associated with greater use of configural information in faces, and a larger own race inversion effect was found for recognition accuracy. Expand
They All Look the Same to Me (Unless They're Angry)
When participants' cognitive processing capacity was constrained, recognition accuracy was greater for angry Black faces than for angry White faces, demonstrating an out-group heterogeneity bias. Expand