The status of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran: comparative study according to demographics.
OBJECTIVE To compare the eradication rates among the different point mutations and the efficacy of triple therapy and a sequential regimen according to genotypic resistance. STUDY DESIGN Post hoc retrospective cohort study in a tertiary referral center for pediatric gastroenterology in southern Italy. All 168 children who were positive for Helicobacter pylori were enrolled. Patients had received clarithromycin-based 7-day triple therapy (73 children) or 10-day sequential therapy regimen (95 children). Real-time polymerase chain reaction for assessing clarithromycin resistance was performed on sections of paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy samples. RESULTS H pylori eradication was achieved in 16 of 32 (50%) children with the A2143G mutation, in 8 of 10 patients with either A2142G or A2142C strains (80%), and in 112 of 116 children with susceptible strains (88.9%). The presence of A2143G mutation was associated with a lower cure rate compared with the rate in the absence of this mutation (50% vs. 89%; P = .001). The sequential regimen achieved a higher cure rate than triple therapy in patients with A2143G mutant strains (80% vs nil; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS The A2143G mutation confers higher risk of treatment failure. Sequential regimen has higher efficacy than standard therapy, even in children with A2143G mutatant strains.