ClC-3 Cl− channel plays an important role in cell volume regulation and cell cycle. In vascular smooth muscle cells, we have found that ClC-3 was involved in ET-1 induced cell proliferation. The present study was designed to further investigate the role of ClC-3 Cl− channel in H2O2-induced apoptosis and its underlying mechanisms in rat basilar arterial smooth muscle cell (BASMCs). By using ClC-3 cDNA and small interference RNA (siRNA) transfection strategy, it was found that overexpression of ClC-3 significantly decreased the apoptotic rate of H2O2-treated BASMCs and increased the cell viability, whereas silencing of ClC-3 with siRNA produced opposite effects and increased the apoptotic rate. ClC-3 overexpression decreased cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activation, and increased both the stability of mitochondrial membrane potential and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, whereas silencing of ClC-3 produced opposite effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of ClC-3 attenuated, whereas silencing of ClC-3 facilitated, the degradation of LaminA, one of the structural matrix proteins, in BASMCs. Our data suggest that ClC-3 Cl− channel can modulate H2O2-induced apoptosis in BASMCs via the intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway.