Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update

  title={Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids in the treatment of overweight and obesity: an update},
  author={Seth Haaz and Kevin R Fontaine and Gary R. Cutter and N. A. Limdi and Suzanne E Perumean-Chaney and David B. Allison},
  journal={Obesity Reviews},
Obesity is a major health problem facing the developed and developing world. Efforts by individuals, health professionals, educators, and policy makers to combat the escalating trend of growing obesity prevalence have been multifaceted and mixed in outcome. Various dietary supplements have been marketed to reduce obesity. These products have been suggested to accomplish this by decreasing energy intake and energy absorption, and/or increasing metabolic rate. Ephedra, one such supplement, was… 
Efficacy of herbal supplements containing Citrus aurantium and synephrine alkaloids for the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review
Until more rigorous RCTs emerge, C. aurantium cannot be recommended as a treatment for weight loss or weight management, because the evidence of efficacy is contradictory and methodologically weak.
Citrus phytochemicals and their potential effects on the prevention and treatment of obesity : review and progress of the past 10 years
A survey focusing on citrus phytochemicals and their anti-obesity activities is presented, together with an update of findings over the last 10 years, including active components and mechanisms of anti-Obesity activities.
An overview of Citrus aurantium used in treatment of various diseases
The photochemistry, constituents, ethnobotany, pharmacology safety and toxicity of citrus plant, which is found in obesity and related risks even life threatening are continuously increasing through out world in all age groups.
A Review on Botanical Species and Chemical Compounds with Appetite Suppressing Properties for Body Weight Control
It is found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss, however, many of these crude extract and compounds need to be further investigated.
Analysis of Synephrine Content in Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Dietary Supplements
The initial goal of this research was to use reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the synephrine content of five dietary supplements and compare to the reported content on the label, but this technique was not as precise as HPLC, and data were obtained that indicated the supplements contained significantly lesssynephrine than the standard.
Effects of p-Synephrine during Exercise: A Brief Narrative Review
More research is still necessary to determine if the effect of p-synephrine on fat oxidation during exercise is maintained with chronic ingestion, in order to ascertain the utility of this substance in conjunction with exercise programs to produce an effective body fat/weight loss reduction.
Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight
This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight.
Safety, Efficacy and Metabolism of Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Management of Obesity: A Review
This study aims to provide a review of the studies on accessible botanical sources for the treatment of obesity and attempts to explain how these medicinal plants act in humans to cause weight loss, and which method of usage is safer and more efficient.
Aurantii Fructus: a systematic review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology
This review comprehensively presents the up-to-date information on botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, clinical use, quality control and toxicology of ZQ to identify their therapeutic potential and directs future research opportunities.
Obesity Phytotherapy
Recent knowledge about medicinal plants that are recommended for weight loss are reviewed to determine the effectiveness and safety of medicinal plants and herbal extracts as well as pharmaceutically active ingredients that may have the property of weight loss.


Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview.
Citrus aurantium, an agent containing beta agonists, has been reported to aid in weight loss in two studies and increase thermogenesis, at least to some extent, in three studies, although at least two of these studies were acute.
Citrus aurantium, an Ingredient of Dietary Supplements Marketed for Weight Loss: Current Status of Clinical and Basic Research
There is little evidence that products containing C. aurantium are an effective aid to weight loss, and synephrine, which is structurally similar to epinephrine, has lipolytic effects in human fat cells only at high doses.
Exactly which synephrine alkaloids does Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) contain?
It is shown that at least one product purportedly containing synephrine alkaloids from CA contains both p- Synephrine and m-synephrine.
Dietary Supplements Containing Ephedrine Alkaloids Adulterated Because They Present an Unreasonable Risk; Final Rule
  • Medicine
    Federal register
  • 2004
The Food and Drug Administration issued a final regulation declaring dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids adulterated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) because
Seville (sour) Orange Juice: Synephrine Content and Cardiovascular Effects in Normotensive Adults
Individuals with severe hypertension, tachyarrhythmias, and narrow‐angle glaucoma and monoamine oxidase inhibitor recipients should avoid SOJ consumption and persons taking decongestant‐containing cold preparations should also refrain from SOJ intake.
Determination of adrenergic agonists from extracts and herbal products of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara by LC.
Comparative anorectic effects of metaraminol and phenylephrine in rats
  • S. Yeh
  • Biology
    Physiology & Behavior
  • 1999
Thermogenic drugs as a strategy for treatment of obesity
There is accumulating evidence to support the hypothesis that a low-energy-output phenotype is at high risk of weight gain and obesity, irrespective of whether this is owing to a low resting metabolic rate and/or physical inactivity, and pharmacologic stimulation of energy expenditure as a tool to improve the results of obesity management.