Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity; Protective Supplements and Gender Differences
Mechanism(s) of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure, as manifested by increases in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, was evaluated in relation to production and activation of endogenous mediator(s) in mice. In interleukin (IL)-18-deficient (IL-18KO) mice, cisplatin failed to induce acute renal failure. Administration of recombinant IL-18 prior to cisplatin restored acute renal failure in IL-18KO mice. Accumulation of cisplatin in the kidney was not different in IL-18KO and wild-type (WT) mice, but, clearance of cisplatin was more rapid in IL-18KO mice than in WT mice. Cisplatin increased serum levels of aldosterone and angiotensin II in WT mice, but only angiotensin II levels in IL-18 KO mice. Administration of IL-18 augmented plasma levels of aldosterone and angiotensin II in WT mice. Eplerenone, an aldosterone receptor blocker, TY-51469, a chymase inhibitor and PD123319, a selective angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist, but not benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and candesartan, a selective angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist improved acute renal failure caused by cisplatin, confirming involvement of IL-18, aldosterone and angiotensin II in cisplatin-induced, chymase-dependent acute renal failure in mice. These results show that IL-18, aldosterone and angiotensin II synergistically act to prolong the accumulation of cisplatin in the kidney, leading to acute renal failure. Combined therapy with inhibitors for chymase and aldosterone receptors or AT2 receptors might reduce acute renal failure induced by cisplatin.