Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation

@article{Svoboda2013CircumcisionOM,
  title={Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation},
  author={J. Steven Jd Svoboda},
  journal={Journal of Medical Ethics},
  year={2013},
  volume={39},
  pages={469 - 474}
}
  • J. Svoboda
  • Published 20 May 2013
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Medical Ethics
Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the… 
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The CDC and the AAP believe that parents should be allowed to make the decision concerning circumcision of their male infants after receiving non-biased information on health risks and health benefits.
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References

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Routine Infant Male Circumcision
Human rights agreements—applicable either through ratification or through customary law—forbid circumcision based on such important principles as the rights of the child, the right to freedom of
Lost Boys: An Estimate of U.S. Circumcision-Related Infant Deaths
TLDR
This study finds that approximately 117 neonatal circumcision-related deaths occur annually in the United States, about 1.3% of male neonatal deaths from all causes, and all of these deaths are avoidable.
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TLDR
Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.
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TLDR
Pregnancy, although a distinctly physical experience, has been treated in a distinctly non-physical manner within American jurisprudence, leading to an alarming trend in American constitutional and common law toward permitting the state to intercede on behalf of its interest in a fetus, thus casting a woman as an adversary to her womb.
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  • Medicine
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
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TLDR
Most parents have made a decision on circumcision before physicians discuss it, and physician discussions appear to have little impact on the decision.
Neonatal male circumcision after delisting in Ontario. Survey of new parents.
TLDR
The prevalence of neonatal circumcision did not change after delisting and informed consent was often lacking, indicating many parents were not well informed about risks or benefits.
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TLDR
Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks and that the procedure’s benefits justify access to this procedure for families who choose it.
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TLDR
It is shown that circumcision is expected and surprisingly well accepted by the boys of Pacific families despite the discomfort they know the procedure causes.
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TLDR
It is argued that children should not be subjected to prophylactic interventions “in their best interests” or for public health reasons when there exist effective and conservative alternative interventions, such as behavioural modification, that individuals could employ as competent adolescents or adults to avoid adverse health outcomes.
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