Circulating tumor cells, disease progression, and survival in metastatic breast cancer.

  title={Circulating tumor cells, disease progression, and survival in metastatic breast cancer.},
  author={Massimo Cristofanilli and George T. Budd and Matthew J. Ellis and Alison T. Stopeck and Jeri Matera and Michael C Miller and James M. Reuben and Gerald V. Doyle and William Jeffrey Allard and Leon W.M.M. Terstappen and Daniel F. Hayes},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  volume={351 8},
BACKGROUND We tested the hypothesis that the level of circulating tumor cells can predict survival in metastatic breast cancer. METHODS In a prospective, multicenter study, we tested 177 patients with measurable metastatic breast cancer for levels of circulating tumor cells both before the patients were to start a new line of treatment and at the first follow-up visit. The progression of the disease or the response to treatment was determined with the use of standard imaging studies at the… 

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