Circulating biomarkers to guide systemic therapy for urothelial carcinoma.

Abstract

There are very few biomarkers used to diagnose bladder cancer and no clinically approved biomarkers for prediction or prognostication of this disease. All currently available biomarkers are based on urine tests, and thus, they may not be applicable to patients with extravesical tumors. Biopsy of metastatic sites requires an invasive procedure, whereas serum… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.08.019

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