Young euparathyroid dogs, prelabeled with radiocalcium and fed a normal-calcium diet exhibited circadian variations in the amount of bone calcium contributed to the plasma calcium pool, as evaluated by changes in plasma calcium-45 radioactivity. When these dogs were fed a low-calcium diet or fasted, the contribution of bone calcium to plasma calcium rose to the point where bone constituted nearly the sole source of plasma calcium, and plasma calcium-45 no longer varied. In thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs fed a normal diet, the fraction of plasma calcium due to bone contribution was reduced and plasma calcium-45 did not vary. When dietary calcium in TPTX dogs was increased by supplementation with calcium lactate pills, total plasma calcium rose, but the contribution of bone calcium to the plasma calcium pool remained unchanged. Thus the ability of normal young dogs to modulate bone calcium mobilization in response to dietary calcium intake appears to be hormonally regulated in a circadian manner.