Circadian Typology: A Comprehensive Review

  title={Circadian Typology: A Comprehensive Review},
  author={Ana Adan and Simon N Archer and Maria Paz Hidalgo and Lee Di Milia and Vincenzo Natale and Christoph Randler},
  journal={Chronobiology International},
  pages={1153 - 1175}
The interest in the systematic study of the circadian typology (CT) is relatively recent and has developed rapidly in the two last decades. All the existing data suggest that this individual difference affects our biological and psychological functioning, not only in health, but also in disease. In the present study, we review the current literature concerning the psychometric properties and validity of CT measures as well as individual, environmental and genetic factors that influence the CT… 
Circadian typology is related to resilience and optimism in healthy adults
The results suggest that evening-type subjects could display less capacity to face adversity and adapt positively, as well as less expectance of the occurrence of positive events compared to neither and morning-type individuals.
Depression and circadian typology.
This study supports the association between depression and some alterations in circadian rhythms of behavior and sleep, and suggests a decreased cellular resilience associated with lower resistance to stressful events.
Measures of circadian preference in childhood and adolescence: A review
[Chronotype and depression in adolescents – a review].
A bidirectional relationship is proposed: on the one hand, due to reduced social and physical activity, depressed patients get less daylight which causes their chronotype to delay, and on the other hand, a discrepancy between internal time and external time can cause problems.
Chronobiology of Mood Disorders
The structural and functional anatomy, as well as the genetic, of the circadian clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nucleus are described, and recent findings on the neurobiology and neuroimaging of the sleep-wake cycle are reviewed.
The association of circadian typology with cognition and smoking status: a cross-sectional Egyptian study
The hypothesis that circadian typology is a risk factor for smoking and for higher levels of nicotine consumption, dependence, and associated cognitive changes in smokers is believed to be correct.
The Emerging Circadian Phenotype of Borderline Personality Disorder: Mechanisms, Opportunities and Future Directions
It is believed that better characterisation of the circadian phenotype in BPD will lead to a directed biological target for treatment in a condition where there is a regrettable paucity of accessible therapies.
Circadian preference and stroke characteristics: A descriptive study
This investigation showed a similar circadian preference (morning-types) in stroke outpatients and the general population, and found no association between circadian preference and the time of stroke onset, or with wake-up stroke.
Chronotype and Psychiatric Disorders
An overview of the current evidence available on the relationship between chronotype and psychiatric disorders is provided, finding eveningness is associated with depression—including seasonal affective disorder (SAD)—and substance dependence, while support for a relation with anxiety disorders and psychosis is lacking.


Circadian typology and individual differences. A review
A chronobiological approach to addiction
Recent chronobiological studies show that drug consumption has a negative effect on circadian rhythmic expression. Circadian rhythm may even disappear in extreme cases, which suggests a lesser
Depression Scores Associate With Chronotype and Social Jetlag in a Rural Population
The results indicate that misalignment of circadian and social time may be a risk factor for developing depression, especially in 31- to 40-yr-olds, and these relationships should be further investigated in longitudinal studies to reveal if reduction of social jetlag should be part of prevention strategies.
Naturally occurring benzodiazepines may codetermine chronotypes
The relationship between naturally occurring benzodiazepines and time-of-day effects on the behavior of healthy subjects is addressed.
The morning-type typology can be considered a protective factor for impulse control disorders, especially in men, but further research is needed on the clinical and neurobiological implications of the results.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part I, basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review.
Circadian rhythm science has also pointed the way to rational interventions for the SWD and JLD, and these treatments have been introduced into the practice of sleep medicine with varying degrees of success.
The circadian basis of winter depression.
The findings support the phase-shift hypothesis for SAD, as well as suggest a way to assess the circadian component of other psychiatric, sleep, and chronobiologic disorders.
Seasonal affective disorder and exercise treatment: a review
The clinical and physiological evidence which suggests that exercise intervention may facilitate effective treatment for SAD is assessed and particular emphasis is given to circadian mechanisms that have been hypothesised to explain mood-enhancing affects of physical exercise.
[Chronobiological aspects of obesity and metabolic syndrome].