The contribution of alcohol consumption and smoking to educational inequalities in life expectancy among Swedish men and women during 1991–2008
AIMS To investigate the prevalence and patterns of transitions between cigarette and snus use. DESIGN Cross-sectional study within the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 31 213 male and female twins 42-64 years old. MEASUREMENTS Age-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) described the association between gender and tobacco use, while Kaplan-Meier survival methods produced cumulative incidence curves of age at onset of tobacco use. Life-time tobacco use histories were constructed using ages at onset of tobacco use and current tobacco use status. FINDINGS Although more males reported ever smoking (64.4%) than females (61.7%), more males were former smokers (POR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.27-1.39). Males were far more likely to use snus than females (POR: 18.0, 95% CI: 16.17-20.04). Age at onset of cigarette smoking occurred almost entirely before age 25, while the age at onset of snus use among males occurred over a longer time period. Most men began using cigarettes first, nearly one-third of whom switched to using cigarettes and snus in combination. While 30.6% of these combined users quit tobacco completely, only 7.4% quit snus and currently use cigarettes, while 47.7% quit cigarettes and currently use snus. CONCLUSIONS Current cigarette smoking is more prevalent among Swedish women than men, while snus use is more prevalent among men. Among men who reported using both cigarettes and snus during their life-time, it was more common to quit cigarettes and currently use snus than to quit snus and currently use cigarettes. Once snus use was initiated, more men continued using snus rather than quit tobacco completely.