Cigarette smoke synergizes lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion from macrophages via substance P-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation.

@article{Xu2011CigaretteSS,
  title={Cigarette smoke synergizes lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion from macrophages via substance P-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation.},
  author={Junyang Xu and Fadi Xu and Yong Lin},
  journal={American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={44 3},
  pages={302-8}
}
A recent study has indicated that alveolar macrophages from smokers incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) secrete much more IL-1β and TNF-α than those from healthy nonsmokers, but the mechanisms underlying this augmented secretion by cigarette smoke (CS) remain unknown. CS and LPS reportedly promote macrophages' secreting substance P (SP) that could up-regulate these cytokines' secretion from macrophages by acting on neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Moreover, NF-κB from macrophages participates… CONTINUE READING