Cigarette smoke extract-induced proliferation of normal human urothelial cells via the MAPK/AP-1 pathway.

Abstract

Bladder cancer (BC) is universally acknowledged as a significant public health issue, worldwide. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoke is the primary risk factor for BC. However, the mechanism of cigarette smoke-induced BC has not been fully elucidated. Sustained epithelial cell hyperplasia has been identified as a preneoplastic lesion… (More)
DOI: 10.3892/ol.2016.5407

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