Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss.

  title={Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss.},
  author={Jasim M Albandar and Charles F. Streckfus and Margo R. Adesanya and Deborah M Winn},
  journal={Journal of periodontology},
  volume={71 12},
BACKGROUND Our purpose was to test the hypotheses that cigar and pipe smoking have significant associations with periodontal disease and cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking is associated with tooth loss. We also investigated whether a history of smoking habits cessation may affect the risk of periodontal disease and tooth loss. METHODS A group of 705 individuals (21 to 92 years-old) who were among volunteer participants in the ongoing Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were examined… 

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