Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has nonamphibian hosts and releases chemicals that cause pathology in the absence of infection

@article{McMahon2012ChytridFB,
  title={Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has nonamphibian hosts and releases chemicals that cause pathology in the absence of infection},
  author={Taegan A. McMahon and Laura A. Brannelly and Matthew W. H. Chatfield and Pieter T. J. Johnson and Maxwell B. Joseph and Valerie J. McKenzie and Corinne L. Richards‐Zawacki and Matthew D. Venesky and Jason R. Rohr},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  year={2012},
  volume={110},
  pages={210 - 215}
}
  • T. McMahon, L. Brannelly, J. Rohr
  • Published 17 December 2012
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a pathogenic chytrid fungus implicated in worldwide amphibian declines, is considered an amphibian specialist. Identification of nonamphibian hosts could help explain the virulence, heterogeneous distribution, variable rates of spread, and persistence of B. dendrobatidis in freshwater ecosystems even after amphibian extirpations. Here, we test whether mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) and crayfish (Procambarus spp. and Orconectes virilis), which are syntopic with… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reservoir frogs: seasonality of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in robber frogs in Dominica and Montserrat
TLDR
Surveying robber frogs on Montserrat and on Dominica identified seasonal patterns in B. dendrobatidis infection prevalence and load, increasing potential for reintroduction success and understanding the dynamics of disease threats such as chytridiomycosis.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in natural and farmed Louisiana crayfish populations: prevalence and implications.
TLDR
It is found that Bd prevalence and infection intensity was low in both farmed and native populations and that prevalence varied seasonally in wild Louisiana crayfish, which could indicate that they could be an important vector in the spread of Bd.
Infection patterns of the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on anuran assemblages in agro-ecosystems from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
TLDR
Understanding of anthropogenic effects on host-pathogen relationships, particularly on the effect of Bd on anuran assemblages under different levels of agricultural impact, is contributed.
Proportion of Hosts Carrying Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Causal Agent of Amphibian Chytridiomycosis, in Oswego County, NY in 2012
TLDR
The documented prevalence levels in combination with lack of observed mass amphibian declines suggest that the fungus may be endemic in local amphibian populations, but additional research is needed to establish the relative importance of these data for the health of amphibians populations in Oswego County and NYS.
Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but Not B. salamandrivorans, Detected on Eastern Hellbenders
TLDR
This study is among the first to evaluate the distribution of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in the United States, and is consistent with another, which failed to detect Bs in the U.S. knowledge about the distribution, host range, and origin of Bs may help control the spread of this pathogen.
Amphibian chytridiomycosis: a review with focus on fungus-host interactions
TLDR
A state-of-the art of host-pathogen interactions for both fungi is provided, in which new data pertaining to the interaction of B. dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans with the host’s skin are integrated.
The invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) increases infection of the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
TLDR
Results suggest that the red swamp crayfish might be a possible reservoir for Chytridiomycosis, representing an additional indirect impact on amphibians, a role that had not been previously recognised in its invasive range.
Patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission between tadpoles in a high-elevation rainforest stream in tropical Australia.
TLDR
This study suggests that any management efforts that can reduce the prevalence of infections in tadpoles may be particularly effective if applied in headwater areas, as their effects are likely to be felt downstream.
DROUGHT REDUCES CHYTRID FUNGUS (BATRACHOCHYTRIUM DENDROBATIDIS) INFECTION INTENSITY AND MORTALITY BUT NOT PREVALENCE IN ADULT CRAWFISH FROGS (LITHOBATES AREOLATUS)
TLDR
It is suggested that drought can reduce the incidence of the severe skin disease (chytridiomycosis) due to Bd infection, and the relationship between prevalence and intensity observed in Bd epidemics can be uncoupled in populations harboring endemic infections.
The Emerging Amphibian Fungal Disease, Chytridiomycosis: A Key Example of the Global Phenomenon of Wildlife Emerging Infectious Diseases.
TLDR
Worldwide spread of amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is largely facilitated by the commercial trade in live amphibians, and greater effort is urgently needed to protect global health.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
The Amphibian Chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Occurs on Freshwater Shrimp in Rain Forest Streams in Northern Queensland, Australia
TLDR
Diagnostic quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the infection status of freshwater shrimp from areas in which they are sympatric with frog species that have suffered declines in association with outbreaks of chytridiomycosis.
Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.
TLDR
This study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment and positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site.
Experimental Infection and Repeat Survey Data Indicate the Amphibian Chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis May Not Occur on Freshwater Crustaceans in Northern Queensland, Australia
TLDR
It is suggested that shrimp may not be an important reservoir host for B. dendrobatidis, and original positive tests in shrimp reported by Rowley et al. (2006) were likely false.
Persistence of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis outside the amphibian host greatly increases the probability of host extinction
TLDR
To investigate the effect of a free-living stage of B. dendrobatidis on host population dynamics, a mathematical model was developed to describe the introduction of chytridiomycosis into a breeding population of Bufo bufo, parametrized from laboratory infection and transmission experiments.
Waterfowl: Potential Environmental Reservoirs of the Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
TLDR
Results of the in vitro tests showed that waterfowl are potential environmental reservoirs for B. dendrobatidis, which is attracted to the keratinous toes of aquatic birds on which they can adhere and even proliferate, however, desiccation is poorly tolerated.
Possible modes of dissemination of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the environment.
TLDR
In vitro studies show that potential means of translocation may be moist soil and bird feathers, and raise the possibilities that B. dendrobatidis may be translocated by movement of moist river sand and that birds may carry the amphibian chytrid between frog habitats.
Interspecific Variation in Susceptibility of Frog Tadpoles to the Pathogenic Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
TLDR
Results show that Batrachochytrium can negatively affect some species of amphibians at the larval stage and not others, and the implications of interspecific variation in susceptibility to fungal infection are broad.
Seasonal Pattern of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection and Mortality in Lithobates areolatus: Affirmation of Vredenburg's “10,000 Zoospore Rule”
TLDR
In summary, Bd infection rates in Crawfish Frog populations ratchet up from near zero during the summer to over 25% following overwintering; rates then nearly double again during and just after breeding—when mortality occurs—before the infection wanes during theSummer.
A DNA-BASED ASSAY IDENTIFIES BATRACHOCHYTRIUM DENDROBATIDIS IN AMPHIBIANS
TLDR
A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction–based assay to detect this pathogen B. dendrobatidis from captive and wild amphibians collected across North America and sequenced the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cassette of multiple isolates.
Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
TLDR
A noninvasive PCR sampling technique is described that can be used to screen museum specimens from other amphibian decline sites around the world and finds evidence of a historical “Bd epidemic wave” that began in Mexico and subsequently spread to Central America.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...