A 10-year-old, male toy poodle presented for evaluation of a progressively worsening, harsh, nonproductive cough. Chylous pleural effusion, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, normoblastemia, and recurrent subcutaneous bruising were diagnosed. Surgical exploration of the cranial mediastinum revealed extensive, redundant connective tissue which was confirmed by histopathology to be mediastinal lymphangiosarcoma (LAS). During surgical placement of a fenestrated silastic mesh for passive pleuroperitoneal drainage, chylous ascites also was diagnosed. The patient was euthanized two days postoperatively due to persistent chylothorax. The etiopathogenesis of chylothorax and chylous ascites are discussed. Previous case reports of lymphatic endothelial neoplasia are reviewed.