Chunks in expert memory: Evidence for the magical number four … or is it two?

@article{Gobet2004ChunksIE,
  title={Chunks in expert memory: Evidence for the magical number four … or is it two?},
  author={Fernand R. Gobet and Garry Clarkson},
  journal={Memory},
  year={2004},
  volume={12},
  pages={732 - 747}
}
This study aims to test the divergent predictions of the chunking theory (Chase & Simon, 1973) and template theory (Gobet & Simon, 1996a, 2000) with respect to the number of chunks held in visual short-term memory and the size of chunks used by experts. We presented game and random chessboards in both a copy and a recall task. In a within-subject design, the stimuli were displayed using two presentation media: (a) physical board and pieces, as in Chase and Simon's (1973) study; and (b) a… 
Mental imagery and chunks: Empirical and computational findings
TLDR
To investigate experts’ imagery in chess, players were required to recall briefly presented positions in which pieces were placed on the intersections between squares (intersection positions), which reinforces the plausibility of CHREST as a model of cognition.
Chunks and Templates in Semantic Long-term Memory: The Importance of Specialization
TLDR
This chapter describes a 2-year study that followed the improvement of a chess master trained to memorize as many chess positions as possible, each presented for 8 seconds, and shows a clear effect of specialization.
Measuring Chess Experts' Single-Use Sequence Knowledge: An Archival Study of Departure from ‘Theoretical’ Openings
TLDR
The results support the hypothesis that monochrestic knowledge is essential for reaching high levels of expertise in chess and provide a direct, quantitative estimate of the number of opening moves that players have to know to reach master level.
Integration of Perceptual Input and Visual Imagery in Chess Players: Evidence From Eye Movements
This multiple-case study addresses the question of how information from the environment is integrated with mental images. Chess players (N = 4) of different skill levels were submitted to a visual
Promoting the experimental dialogue between working memory and chunking: Behavioral data and simulation
TLDR
The aim of the present paper was to strengthen the experimental dialogue between WM and chunking, by studying the effect of acronyms in a computer-paced complex span task paradigm and to formalize explicitly this dialogue within a computational model.
Perception in Chess and Beyond 2 Perception in Chess and Beyond : Commentary on Linhares and Freitas
Linhares and Freitas (2010; LF) argue that experts use analogical or semantic similarity, similarities that are not available from direct surface representations. LF make their case using a critique
Perception in chess and beyond : commentary on Linhares and Freitas (2010)
Chess knowledge predicts chess memory even after controlling for chess experience: Evidence for the role of high-level processes
TLDR
The results of this experiment support the conclusion that both high-level conceptual processing and low-level recognition of familiar patterns play important roles in memory for chess positions.
How should we measure chunks? a continuing issue in chunking research and a way forward
TLDR
Though many chunking papers use a variety of methods to measure how chunks are formed and retrieved, it is unclear whether the majority of these methods of measuring chunks accurately reflect the internal cognitive processes that are involved in chunk formation.
Recall of Briefly Presented Chess Positions and Its Relation to Chess Skill
TLDR
This study identified individual chunks for particular chess players by introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, and found significant differences between players and non-players in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
Templates in Chess Memory: A Mechanism for Recalling Several Boards
TLDR
It is suggested that chess players, like experts in other recall tasks, use long-term memory retrieval structures (Chase & Ericsson, 1982) or templates in addition to chunks in short- term memory to store information rapidly.
Expert chess memory: revisiting the chunking hypothesis.
TLDR
It is concluded that the two-second inter-chunk interval used to define chunk boundaries is robust, and that chunks have psychological reality.
In search of templates
Five seconds or sixty? Presentation time in expert memory
Recall memory for visually presented chess positions
TLDR
A series of three experiments replicated and extended earlier research reported by Chase and Simon (1973), de Groot (1965), and Charness (1965) and demonstrated that meaningful piece groupings during presentation markedly enhance subsequent recall performance.
The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity
  • N. Cowan
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2001
TLDR
A wide variety of data on capacity limits suggesting that the smaller capacity limit in short-term memory tasks is real is brought together and a capacity limit for the focus of attention is proposed.
Is experts' knowledge modular?
TLDR
A replication of Chase and Simon's classic method of identifying 'chunks', i.e., perceptual patterns stored in memory and used as units, is discussed, showing that the model, based upon the acquisition of a large number of chunks, accounts for the human data well.
How Big Is a Chunk?
TLDR
It is shown that, by viewing experimentation in a parameter-estimating paradigm instead of a hypothesis-testing paradigm, one can obtain much more information from experiments—information that, combined with contemporary theoretical models of the cognitive processes, has implications for human performance on tasks quite different from those of the original experiments.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...