Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in sport: a systematic review

  title={Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in sport: a systematic review},
  author={Andrew J. Gardner and Grant L. Iverson and Paul McCrory},
  journal={British Journal of Sports Medicine},
  pages={84 - 90}
Objective To provide a critical review of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) by considering the range of clinical presentations, neuropathology and the strength of evidence for CTE as a distinct syndrome. Data sources Seven electronic databases were searched using a combination of MeSH terms and key words to identify relevant articles. Review methods Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select studies for review. Data extracted where present included study population… 

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Contact Sports: A Systematic Review of All Reported Pathological Cases

It is found that a history of mTBI was the only risk factor consistently associated with CTE, and no relationships between CTE and age of death or abnormal ApoE allele were found, and the incidence of CTE remains unknown due to the lack of large, longitudinal studies.

A Clinical Approach to the Diagnosis of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Review.

This clinical paradigm will provide the framework for a diagnosis of probable, possible, and unlikely traumatic encephalopathy syndrome, with included discussion regarding the minimum exposure, nature of the clinical course, and additional clinical features needed for diagnosis.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

This chapter will review the posited pathology and emerging clinical presentation of CTE, with discussion of limitations of both and a clinical approach to management in patients where CTE is suspected is outlined.

The Current Status of Research on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Traumatic Brain Injury: Bridging Pathology, Function, and Prognosis

The aim of this review is to analyze the current literature on CTE, to juxtapose CTE literature with the more abundant research on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and to offer recommendations for clinicians working with at-risk patients.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: How serious a sports problem is it?

It is now recognised that there is a spectrum of concussion disorders ranging from acute concussion at one end to various forms of brain degeneration at the other end, which includes chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and it is essential to carefully evaluate the clinical and neuropathological correlations of CTE that have been published.

Factors Influencing Clinical Correlates of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE): a Review

Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes associated with developmental and demographic factors, and neurodevelopmental disorders should be considered as modifiers predominantly of the clinical outcomes associated with repetitive brain trauma within a broader biopsychosocial framework, though also note potential effects on neuropathological outcomes.

The Neuropathological and Clinical Diagnostic Criteria of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Critical Examination in Relation to Other Neurodegenerative Diseases.

CTE is compared to other well-established neurodegenerative entities including Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and indicates that CTE is a disease in the earliest stages of formation and has yet to undergo rigorous development and refinement similar to other neurodegenersative diseases.

Research Gaps and Controversies in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Review

It is indicated that exposure to RBT represents the greatest risk factor for CTE pathological features, although clinicopathological correlates and the nature of onset and progression of symptoms are largely unknown.



What is the evidence for chronic concussion-related changes in retired athletes: behavioural, pathological and clinical outcomes?

The potential differential diagnoses that require consideration when retired athletes present with cognitive and psychiatric problems are considered and the interpretation of causation in the modern CTE case studies should proceed cautiously.

The Evidence for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Boxing

As medical presence within the sport increases and with modern boxers likely to have shorter careers, a reduced exposure to repetitive head trauma, and improved treatment and understanding of the development of Cte will occur, this should lead to the incidence of CTE diminishing in boxing populations.

Emerging Histomorphologic Phenotypes of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in American Athletes

The emerging histomorphologic features of the CTE cohort may specify histologic criteria for CTE diagnosis, may identify emerging histologic variants of CTE and may facilitate more objective surveillance and accurate identification of sentinel CTE cases.

The clinical spectrum of sport-related traumatic brain injury

  • B. Jordan
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Neurology
  • 2013
The spectrum of acute and chronic sport-related TBI is discussed, highlighting how examination of athletes involved in high-impact sports has advanced understanding of pathology of brain injury and enabled improvements in detection and diagnosis of sport- related TBI.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a National Football League Player: Case report and emerging medicolegal practice questions

This 44‐year‐old retired NFL player manifested a premortem history of cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment, which included in part, chronic depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory before he finally committed suicide, with autopsy findings, apolipoprotein E genotype, and brain tissue evidence of chronic brain damage.

Chronic neuropathologies of single and repetitive TBI: substrates of dementia?

Little consensus currently exists on specific features of these post-TBI syndromes that might permit their confident clinical and/or pathological diagnosis, and the mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration following TBI largely remain unknown.

Acute and chronic traumatic encephalopathies: pathogenesis and biomarkers

The goal of this Review is to provide an overview of the latest understanding of CTE pathophysiology, and to delineate the key issues that are challenging clinical and research communities, such as accurate quantification of the risk of Cte, and development of reliable biomarkers for single-incident TBI and CTE.

Absence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in retired football players with multiple concussions and neurological symptomatology

The case studies highlight that not all athletes with history of repeated concussions and neurological symptomology present neuropathological changes of CTE, and support the need for further research into the link between concussion and CTE as well as the need to expand the research to other possible causes of taupathy in athletes.

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Suicides and Parasuicides in Professional American Athletes: The Role of the Forensic Pathologist

Full forensic autopsies and immunohistochemical analyses of the brains revealed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in 5 professional American contact sport athletes who committed parasuicides and suicides aged 50, 45, 44, 36, and 40 years old.