Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Evaluation from clinical, immunological and bacterial pathogenesis perspectives


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease manifested by significantly impaired airflow, afflicts ∼14.2 million cases in the United States alone with an estimated 63 million people world-wide. Although there are a number of causes, the predominant cause is excessive tobacco smoke. In fact, in China, there have been estimates of 315,000,000… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s12275-014-4068-2

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