A 67-year-old man with pulmonary emphysema was admitted to the hospital because of left back pain. Chest roentgenography revealed an infiltrate in the left upper lobe, with cavitation, Mycetoma-like shadows were seen in the cavities about 3 weeks later, and a test for the precipitating antibody to Aspergillus fumigatus was positive. Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) was diagnosed, and fluconazole was given. A chest roentgenogram taken 4 weeks later showed resolution of both the mycetoma-like shadows and much of the infiltrate. Systemic immunosuppression was highly unlikely: the patient had not been undergoing corticosteroid therapy, and had no predisposing conditions, such as a chronic debilitating illness or diabetes mellitus. In that sense, this case is similar to another reported recently, in which CNPA was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an immunocompentent patient.