A patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed Ph1-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia after a 6-yr course of CLL. Chemotherapy for CLL consisted of chlorambucil and steroids, later vincristine and bleomycin; after resistance to these agents, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone were applied. When CML was diagnosed, we found two morphologically distinct populations of malignant cells in the bone marrow; the Ph1-chromosome was identified, and immunological surface marker studies also demonstrated two distinct malignant cell populations. Up to now, only five cases of CML have been reported following CLL and one case accompanying it. Three patients were treated with cytostatic drugs, one patient by total body irradiation and two patients received no therapy. At present, it is not clear whether the development of CML during CLL represents a therapy-induced complication or an increased susceptibility to second malignancies due to the leukemic process itself or possibly to immunological deficiencies in CLL. Since two patients received no treatment for CLL, previous therapy does not seem to be a prerequisite for the development of CML.