Chronic herbivory: impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine.

Abstract

Pinyon pine, Pinus edulis (Engelm.), in Northern Arizona is exposed to recurring high levels of herbivory by the moth Dioryctria albovitella (Hust.). During a 3-year period, infested trees experienced on average a 30 percent reduction in annual shoot production. This herbivory affects tree architecture, growth rate, reproductive output, and sexual… (More)

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Cite this paper

@article{Whitham1985ChronicHI, title={Chronic herbivory: impacts on architecture and sex expression of pinyon pine.}, author={Thomas G. Whitham and Susan Mopper}, journal={Science}, year={1985}, volume={228 4703}, pages={1089-91} }