The incidence of two markers of viral replication (viral DNA in sera and HBc Ag on liver) was studied in 22 patients and compared to the histological features of needle biopsy of the liver. We obtained a 100% qualitative correlation between both methods. The presence of these two markers of replication is independent of the histological feature of the hepatic lesions we studied. Using our knowledge of the recent discoveries about chronic HBV infection, we proved that a close examination of both results modifies the predictive value of each one. The pejorative characteristic of the CAH is particularly doubtful in some cases.