Chronic disorders of consciousness

@article{Bernat2006ChronicDO,
  title={Chronic disorders of consciousness},
  author={James L. Bernat},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2006},
  volume={367},
  pages={1181-1192}
}
  • J. Bernat
  • Published 8 April 2006
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Lancet

THE MINIMALLY CONSCIOUS STATE : NEUROIMAGING AND REGENERATION

TLDR
In recent years, neuroimaging studies have shed light on the underlying pathogenesis of both minimally conscious state and vegetative state and providing insights into the basis of the neural network subserving consciousness, which may potentially provide a substrate for experimental interventional therapies, such as drugs and neurotrophic factors.

Neuroimaging and Outcome Assessment in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious State

TLDR
The MCS patients do not meet diagnostic criteria for coma or VS because they demonstrate some inconsistent but clear evidence of consciousness, but MR may provide an adjunctive diagnostic role when behavioural findings are very limited or ambiguous.

Chronic disorders of consciousness following coma: Part one: medical issues.

  • J. Luce
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Chest
  • 2013
TLDR
Clinical investigations have revealed that some vegetative patients can become minimallyconscious and that some minimally conscious patients can gain increased awareness, and the overall prognosis for neurologic recovery remains poor.

Chronic consciousness disorders.

  • J. Bernat
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annual review of medicine
  • 2009
TLDR
Several recent provocative studies suggest that fMRI in unresponsive patients may detect evidence of conscious awareness when a careful neurological examination cannot, which will alter clinical practices concerning the diagnosis, classification, and prognosis of unconscious patients, and will lead to a greater understanding of the biology of human consciousness.

Features of residual brain activity in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness on resting-state functional MRI

TLDR
It was found that the nature of the signal coming from anatomical regions that are part of the DMN changes when signs of consciousness emerge, confirming that resting state fMRI is an important additional tool for differential diagnosis of CDC types.

Current controversies in states of chronic unconsciousness

TLDR
The vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) are the principal clinical syndromes of patients with chronically disordered consciousness and can be the consequence of a variety of brain injuries and illnesses.

Deep brain stimulation for prolonged disorders of consciousness

Deep brain stimulation has emerged as a “last resort” therapy for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness. The latter encompasses a range of conditions including minimal conscious state

Neural Correlates of Normal and Impaired Consciousness

Consciousness is notoriously difficult to conceptually define and measure, despite being central to human experience in both health and pathology. In recent years, the combined efforts of researchers

Evaluating brain function in patients with disorders of consciousness.

TLDR
Findings from normal volunteers and pathologies of consciousness show that widely distributed networks such as thalamofrontal and parietofrontal systems may be critical, and current knowledge supports a model of extended brain tissue damage from the midbrain to the cortex in anoxia patients and a models of focal or multifocal cortical lesions in trauma patients.

Functional Neuroimaging of Disorders of Consciousness

TLDR
It is suggested that the future integration of emerging functional neuroimaging techniques with existing clinical and behavioral methods of assessment will be essential in reducing the current rate of misdiagnosis.
...

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