Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rodents.

  title={Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rodents.},
  author={J. Charles and D. M. Bond and T. Jeffries and B. Yano and W. Stott and K. Johnson and H. Cunny and R. Wilson and J. Bus},
  journal={Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology},
  volume={33 2},
  • J. Charles, D. M. Bond, +6 authors J. Bus
  • Published 1996
  • Medicine
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Forms of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (collectively known as 2,4-D) are herbicides used to control a wide variety of broadleaf and woody plants. Doses in the 2-year chronic/oncogenicity rat study were 0, 5, 75, and 150 mg/kg/day. The chronic toxicity paralleled subchronic findings, and a NOEL of 5 mg/kg/day was established. A slight increase in astrocytomas observed (in males only) at 45 mg/kg/day in a previously conducted chronic rat study was not confirmed in the present study at the high… Expand
Comparative metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rat and dog
The results show that the body burden of 2,4-D in dog is significantly higher than in rat for an equivalent dose, which is consistent with the increased sensitivity of dog to 2, 4-D toxicity. Expand
Review of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Epidemiology and Toxicology
The scientific evidence in humans and animals relevant to cancer risks, neurologic disease, reproductive risks, and immunotoxicity of 2,4-D was reviewed and no experimental evidence exists supporting the theory that 2, 4-D or any of its salts and esters damages DNA under physiologic conditions. Expand
Sex-dependent differences in the disposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Sprague-Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters.
Kinetic analysis revealed significant differences in elimination and exposure parameters consistent with a greater ability to clear 2,4-D by male rats relative to females, which suggests that at equivalent doses, female rats are exposed to higher concentrations of 2, 4-D for a longer time than males and may be more susceptible to 2,3-D-induced toxicity. Expand
Exposures to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with or without endotoxin upregulate small cell lung cancer pathway
The data from the study provide the insights of the potential damage on lungs caused by 2,4-D and help to better understand the mechanism of this complex relation. Expand
Investigation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid effects in different population of rat duodenum myenteric neurons.
The results suggest that the 2,4-D has a neurotoxic action in the neurons from the myenteric plexus, interfering in the myEnteric neuronal density, when different population of these neurons are compared. Expand
The cytotoxic effects of exposure to low concentrations of the herbicide, 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) that are typically found in groundwater were investigated, in vitro. Most 2,4-DExpand
A Systematic Review of Carcinogenic Outcomes and Potential Mechanisms from Exposure to 2,4-D and MCPA in the Environment
A comparison of biomonitoring data to oral equivalent doses calculated from bioassay data shows that environmental exposures are not sufficient to support a causal relationship and the combined evidence does not support a genotoxic mode of action. Expand
Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers
Overall, there were fewer cancer cases than expected, and a non statistically significant increase in the number of NHL cases, and no clear patterns of NHL risk with period of hire and histology subtypes. Expand
Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.
TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests and is used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration for test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. Expand
Neurons of the Myenteric Plexus of the Rat Ileum Are Vulnerable to the Action of the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid
Results suggest that 2,4-D causes a reduction in neuronal density, particularly for cholinergic neurons, and promotes an increase in the cell body area of nitrergic neurons, leading to hypertrophy. Expand


Comparative subchronic and chronic dietary toxicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine, and ester in the dog.
Comparing toxicity among representative forms of 2,4-D and their generally low toxicity following subchronic and chronic dietary exposure in the dog are indicated. Expand
Chronic dietary toxicity study on 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid in the dog.
  • J. Charles, N. Leeming
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 1998
The findings in this study indicate the general low toxicity of 2,4-DB following chronic dietary exposure in the dog and support a chronic no observed adverse effect level of 75 ppm. Expand
Chronic toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rats and dogs.
Abstract Starting at 3 wk of age, rats (25 female and 25 male per group) were fed for 2 yr either 0, 5, 25, 125, 625, or 1250 ppm of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the diet. No significantExpand
A Comprehensive, Integrated Review and Evaluation of the Scientific Evidence Relating to the Safety of the Herbicide 2,4-D
The available data indicate that the potential public health impact of 2,4-D, including the risk of human cancer, was negligible in the past and would be expected to be even smaller in the present and future. Expand
Aging changes in CD-1 HaM/ICR mice reared under standard laboratory conditions.
Variability in tumor incidence among small groups if mice emphasized the need for adequate samples is found, as well as among mice that came to autopsy, is found. Expand
The Icr:Ha(ICR) mouse: a current account of breeding, mutations, diseases and mortality
This stock of albino mice is minimally inbred, and has been rigidly selected for fecundity, with predominant tumour types being pulmonary, lymphoreticular, and mammary, while renal and cardiovascular disease was common in the elderly and males outlived females. Expand
New tables for multiple comparisons with a control.
The main purpose of the present paper is to give the exact tables for making two-sided comparisons, and a method is given for adjusting the tabulated values to cover the situation where the variance of the control mean is smaller than thevariance of the treatment means. Expand
A Multiple Comparison Procedure for Comparing Several Treatments with a Control
(1955). A Multiple Comparison Procedure for Comparing Several Treatments with a Control. Journal of the American Statistical Association: Vol. 50, No. 272, pp. 1096-1121.
Transformations: Some Examples Revisited
Modern computing equipment is extremely fast and can also provide graphical out-put. Prior to the computer era, problems were often formulated in terms of a single numerical criterion which could beExpand
Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the rodents
  • J. S. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol
  • 1996