Chronic critically ill dyspneic patients: mechanisms and clinical measurement.

  title={Chronic critically ill dyspneic patients: mechanisms and clinical measurement.},
  author={Nancy M Spector and Dieter Klein},
  journal={AACN clinical issues},
  volume={12 2},
Dyspnea is a multidimensional, subjective perception of breathing difficulty commonly seen in patients who are critically or terminally ill. Understanding the mechanisms and assessment of dyspnea will help nurses in advanced practice roles to successfully manage these patients. Major mechanisms of dyspnea include stimulation of the chemoreceptors, stimulation of chest wall and intrapulmonary receptors, and increased sense of effort (also termed increased respiratory motor command). The causes… CONTINUE READING
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