JUSTIFICATION Diarrhea that lasts for more than two weeks is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in infants and children. There is a need to update the information available on this subject in Indian context. PROCESS This review has analyzed the available published data on the subject with particular focus on developing countries. It has also outlined the current diagnostic and management practices in India based on the experience of the participants from major hospitals in different parts of the country. OBJECTIVES Problem areas in both persistent and chronic diarrhea have been identified and remedial measures relevant to India are presented. RECOMMENDATIONS Micronutrient supplementation, algorithm based diet regimens, and good supportive care are sufficient in most children above 6 months of age with persistent diarrhea. Paucity of diagnostic facilities limits evaluation of chronic diarrhea in most parts of the country and regional laboratories need to be set up urgently. Lack of awareness regarding cows milk protein allergy, celiac disease and immunodeficiency associated diarrhea is of particular concern.