Chronic activation of AMP kinase results in NRF-1 activation and mitochondrial biogenesis.

@article{Bergeron2001ChronicAO,
  title={Chronic activation of AMP kinase results in NRF-1 activation and mitochondrial biogenesis.},
  author={Raynald Bergeron and J. M. Ren and Kevin S. Cadman and Irene K. Moore and Pascal Perret and Marc Pypaert and Lawrence H. Young and Clay F. Semenkovich and Gerald I. Shulman},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism},
  year={2001},
  volume={281 6},
  pages={
          E1340-6
        }
}
The underlying mechanism by which skeletal muscle adapts to exercise training or chronic energy deprivation is largely unknown. To examine this question, rats were fed for 9 wk either with or without beta-guanadinopropionic acid (beta-GPA; 1% enriched diet), a creatine analog that is known to induce muscle adaptations similar to those induced by exercise training. Muscle phosphocreatine, ATP, and ATP/AMP ratios were all markedly decreased and led to the activation of AMP-activated protein… 

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