Chronic Parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis.

@article{Langston1983ChronicPI,
  title={Chronic Parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis.},
  author={James W. Langston and Phillip Ballard and James W. Tetrud and Ian Irwin},
  journal={Science},
  year={1983},
  volume={219 4587},
  pages={
          979-80
        }
}
Four persons developed marked parkinsonism after using an illicit drug intravenously. Analysis of the substance injected by two of these patients revealed primarily 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) with trace amounts of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-propionoxy-piperidine (MPPP). On the basis of the striking parkinsonian features observed in our patients, and additional pathological data from one previously reported case, it is proposed that this chemical selectively damages cells in… 

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Apraxia of lid opening is a nonparalytic motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in initiating the act of lid elevation. It differs from paralytic ptosis by being present only

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