Chronic Exercise Preserves Lean Muscle Mass in Masters Athletes

@article{Wroblewski2011ChronicEP,
  title={Chronic Exercise Preserves Lean Muscle Mass in Masters Athletes},
  author={Andrew P. Wroblewski and Francesca Amati and M Autumn Smiley and Bret H. Goodpaster and Vonda J. Wright},
  journal={The Physician and Sportsmedicine},
  year={2011},
  volume={39},
  pages={172 - 178}
}
Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. [] Key Method A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps.
Leg Strength Declines With Advancing Age Despite Habitual Endurance Exercise in Active Older Adults
TLDR
The data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.
Anthropometric, physical function and general health markers of Masters athletes: a cross-sectional study
TLDR
Examination of measures of anthropometric, physical function and general health markers in the male and female Masters athletes who competed at the 2014 Pan Pacific Masters Games held on the Gold Coast, Australia may suggest that participation in Masters sport helps to maintain anthropometry,Physical function andgeneral health in middle-aged and older adults.
Muscle disuse; the culprit of sarcopenia? A study in master athletes
Sarcopenia is described as the result of a slow but progressive age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass which is reflected by a reduction in the force and power generating capacity of the remaining
Nutrition for Older Athletes: Focus on Sex-Differences
TLDR
The most important hormonal alterations occurring during aging pertaining regulation of appetite, glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure and the modulatory role of exercise training are described and nutritional aspects that may support health and physical performance for older athletes are highlighted.
Does Chronic Exercise Attenuate Age-Related Physiological Decline in Males?
TLDR
It is suggested that life-long exercise is associated with favorable body composition and attenuation of the age related decline in testosterone.
Long-term high-level exercise promotes muscle reinnervation with age.
TLDR
The data show that long-term physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers and suggest that decades of high-level exercise allow the body to adapt to age-related denervation by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through selective recruitment to slow motor units.
Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review
TLDR
The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia.
Keeping older muscle “young” through dietary protein and physical activity.
  • D. Moore
  • Medicine, Biology
    Advances in nutrition
  • 2014
TLDR
It is proposed that inactivity is the precipitating factor in the development of anabolic resistance and the subsequent progression from healthy aging to frailty, and physical activity should be viewed as a vital component to maintaining muscle mass and function with age.
Sarcopenic Characteristics of Active Older Adults: a Cross-Sectional Exploration
TLDR
Contributions of age, physical activity, daily protein intake, and biological sex can explain the individual variation in outcomes related to changes in body composition, strength, power, and/or cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of active older adults.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Attenuation of skeletal muscle and strength in the elderly: The Health ABC Study.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the attenuation values of muscle on computed tomography in older persons can account for differences in muscle strength not attributed to muscle quantity.
Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration.
TLDR
Loss of leg MT in older adults is greater than muscle CSA loss, which suggests a decrease in MQ, and aging is associated with an increase in IMF regardless of changes in weight or SF.
Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort.
TLDR
Low muscle mass did not explain the strong association of strength with mortality, demonstrating that muscle strength as a marker of muscle quality is more important than quantity in estimating mortality risk.
Effects of Resistance Training on Older Adults
TLDR
Strength and muscle mass are increased following resistance training in older adults through a poorly understood series of events that appears to involve the recruitment of satellite cells to support hypertrophy of mature myofibres.
The Aging of Elite Male Athletes: Age-Related Changes in Performance and Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function
TLDR
It is surprising that the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age.
Muscle strength and metabolism in master athletes.
TLDR
The results suggest that the ability of master athletes to perform exercise at a given intensity is maintained despite a significant loss in strength with ageing.
Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography.
TLDR
Although fat mass was only slightly less in older men, there were clear distributional differences in fat between the age groups, and analysis of fat accumulation between muscles of the abdomen and leg indicated fat infiltration into lean tissue in the older men.
Physical activity as a preventative factor for frailty: the health, aging, and body composition study.
TLDR
It is suggested that participation in self-selected exercise activities is independently associated with delaying the onset and the progression of frailty, and regular exercise should be further examined as a potential factor in frailty prevention for older adults.
Thigh composition in young and elderly men determined by computed tomography.
TLDR
Comparisons of relative leg muscle strength between young and elderly men may be misleading due to the decrease in actual muscle tissue associated with ageing, and appropriate quantification of muscle size and CSA must be carried out before such comparisons can be meaningful.
Age and gender interactions in physiological functional capacity: insight from swimming performance.
TLDR
It is indicated that from peak levels at age 35-40 yr, physiological functional capacity, as assessed by swimming performance, decreases linearly until approximately 70-80 yr of age, whereupon the decline becomes exponential.
...
...