Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells

  title={Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells},
  author={Thomas Cremer and Christoph Cremer},
  journal={Nature Reviews Genetics},
The expression of genes is regulated at many levels. Perhaps the area in which least is known is how nuclear organization influences gene expression. Studies of higher-order chromatin arrangements and their dynamic interactions with other nuclear components have been boosted by recent technical advances. The emerging view is that chromosomes are compartmentalized into discrete territories. The location of a gene within a chromosome territory seems to influence its access to the machinery… 
Dynamic genome architecture in the nuclear space: regulation of gene expression in three dimensions
This work has shown that the dynamic nature of the positioning of genetic material in the nuclear space and the higher-order architecture of the nucleus are integrated is essential to the overall understanding of gene regulation.
The dynamics of chromosome organization and gene regulation.
  • D. Spector
  • Biology
    Annual review of biochemistry
  • 2003
The current state of knowledge with regard to the organization of chromosomes within the nucleus and the positioning of active versus inactive genes is described and studies on the dynamics of chromosomes and specific genetic loci within living cells and its relationship to gene activity and the cell cycle are discussed.
Nuclear positioning, gene activity, and cancer
Emerging evidence suggests that the nucleus is structurally and functionally compartimentalized and desorganization of such a structure might play a major role in the emergence of human diseases such as cancer.
Gene regulation through nuclear organization
This review highlights mechanistic links between gene position, repression and transcription in the nucleus, and suggests that architectural features have multiple functions that depend upon organization into dedicated subcompartments enriched for distinct enzymatic machinery.
Chromatin Dynamics and Gene Positioning
Chromatin dynamics.
The role of intra- and interchromosomal interactions in the control of coregulated genes is discussed and the current state of knowledge with regard to the localization of active and inactive genes within the three-dimensional nuclear space is discussed.
Organisation of the mammalian genome in the nucleus
To determine whether genes occupy specific sites within interphase chromosome territories, 2D and 3D fluorescence in situ hybridisation is used to investigate the spatial organisation of stretches of DNA from the short arm of human chromosome 11 (HSA1 lp), which differ in gene content.
Dynamic organization of chromosomes in the mammalian cell nucleus
An in vivo replication labeling strategy was developed, that enabled the simultaneous visualization of early and mid- to-late replicating chromatin as well as single chromosome territories on the basis of a labeling/segregation approach, and initial results point to concomitant distortion of the mid-to-late replication pattern.
Large-scale nuclear architecture and transcriptional control.
The different levels of chromatin organisation in the nucleus are summarized and current efforts into characterising the mechanisms that govern it are discussed.


Protein dynamics: implications for nuclear architecture and gene expression.
The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture, and their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework.
Cell biology of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing: nuclear architecture meets nuclear function.
It is discussed here how two essential nuclear processes - transcription and pre-mRNA splicing - are spatially organized and coordinated in vivo, and how this organization might contribute to the control of gene expression.
The new paradigm: integrating genomic function and nuclear architecture.
In situ labeling coupled with three-dimensional microscopy and computer imaging techniques shows that DNA replication and transcription sites are organized into higher-order units, or "zones," in the cell nucleus.
Mini review: Form and function in the human interphase chromosome
This review focuses on the compartmentalization of the genome conferred by this organization and evaluates the current understanding of the role of large-scale chromatin folding in the regulation of gene expression.
Nuclear organization of mammalian genomes : Polar chromosome territories build up functionally distinct higher order compartments
It is shown that distinct higher order compartments whose DNA displays a specific replication timing are stably maintained during all interphase stages and have no transcriptional activity detectable by BrUTP pulse labeling and show no evidence of transcriptional competence.
The new paradigm: Integrating genomic function and nuclear architecture
In situ labeling coupled with three‐dimensional microscopy and computer imaging techniques shows that DNA replication and transcription sites are organized into higher‐order units, or “zones,” in the cell nucleus.
Chromosome territories, interchromatin domain compartment, and nuclear matrix: an integrated view of the functional nuclear architecture.
A model of a modular and dynamic chromosome territory (CT) organization is presented that basically three nuclear compartments exist, an "open" higher-order chromatin compartment with chromatin domains containing active genes, a "closed" Chromatin compartment comprising inactive genes, and an interchromatin domain (ICD) compartment that contains macromolecular complexes for transcription, splicing, DNA replication, and repair.
Nuclear organization and gene expression: homologous pairing and long-range interactions.
The spatial organization of human chromosomes within the nuclei of normal and emerin-mutant cells.
The intranuclear organization of chromosomes is not altered in cells that lack the integral nuclear membrane protein emerin, from an individual with X-linked Emery--Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, which suggests that emerin is not necessary for localizing chromosomes at the nuclear periphery and that the muscular Dystrophy phenotype in such individuals is not due to grossly altered nuclear organization of chromatin.
Visualization of gene activity in living cells
Using the lac operator/repressor system and two colour variants of green fluorescent protein, a system to visualize a gene and its protein product directly in living cells, allowing us to examine the spatial organization and timing of gene expression in vivo.