Chromosomal and molecular evolution in Asiatic wild asses

  title={Chromosomal and molecular evolution in Asiatic wild asses},
  author={Oliver A. Ryder and Leona G. Chemnick},
Chromosomal studies of Tibetan wild ass,Equus kiang holdereri are reported for the first time. A Robertsonian polymorphism resulting in diploid numbers of 2n=51 and 2n=52 was identified. This polymorphism involves the same elements that participate in the polymorphic Robertsonian rearrangement producing diploid numbers of 54–56 inE. hemionus kulan andE. hemionus onager. Comparison of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment patterns among three unrelated kiang individuals and between kiangs and a… 

Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed low genetic diversity in the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur

It is suggested that maintaining high genetic diversity in the existing isolated population of 4000 Indian wild asses inhabiting the wild ass sanctuary is important compared with subspecies preservation alone.

A centric fission and heterochromatin polymorphism in Equus asinus Spanish breeds

All Spanish asinine specimens correspond to a single population, from the chromosomal point of view, and results show no polymorphisms which can be attributed to a particular breed.

Karyotypic relationships in Asiatic asses (kulan and kiang) as defined using horse chromosome arm-specific and region-specific probes

Comparative chromosome painting in kiang completed the efforts to establish chromosomal homologies in all representatives of the family Equidae.

A survey of equid mitochondrial DNA: Implications for the evolution, genetic diversity and conservation of Equus

The phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial DNA sequences of the control region and 12S rRNA gene provides further evidence that the deepest node in the phylogeny of the extant species is a divergence between twolineages, with the later speciation events of the zebras and asses occurring either as one or more rapid radiations, or withextensive secondary contact after speciation.

Eurasian wild asses in time and space: morphological versus genetic diversity.

  • E. GeiglT. Grange
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • 2012

Homologous fission event(s) implicated for chromosomal polymorphisms among five species in the genus Equus

Evidence is reported that the polymorphism involves the same homologous chromosome segments in each species, and that these chromosome segments have homology to human chromosome 4 (HSA4) and that this polymorphism is either ancient and conserved within the genus or has occurred recently and independently within each species.

Taming the late Quaternary phylogeography of the Eurasiatic wild ass through ancient and modern DNA

This study places the extinct European wild ass, E. hydruntinus, into its phylogenetic context within the Asiatic wild asses and reveals recent gene flow events between populations currently regarded as separate species.

Low genetic diversity of the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur, as revealed by microsatellite analyses

This pilot study genotyped 42 free-ranging Indian wild asses at five microsatellite loci to reveal the genetic diversity at a nuclear level and confirmed the existence of five subspecies of E. h.

Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA

Phylogenetic analyses support a major revision of the recent evolutionary history of equids and reveal two new species, a South American hippidion and a descendant of a basal lineage potentially related to Middle Pleistocene equids.



Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus.

The variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 Myr before the present, and trees constructed according to the parsimony principle indicate that the three extant zebra species represent a monophyletic group.

Chromosomal polymorphism in Equus hemionus.

  • O. Ryder
  • Biology
    Cytogenetics and cell genetics
  • 1978
The first cytogenetic studies of the Turkmenian kulan are reported, and a polymorphism in diploid chromosome number is described, and the rearrangement involved has been identified in animals unrelated through captive breeding.

Rapid evolution of animal mitochondrial DNA.

The rate of evolution of the mitochondrial genome appears to exceed that of the single-copy fraction of the nuclear genome by a factor of about 10 and is likely to be an extremely useful molecule to employ for high-resolution analysis of the evolutionary process.

Chromosome banding studies of the Equidae.

The chromosome banding patterns of all seven extant species of the horse family, Equidae, are presented. This mammalian family is composed of a single genus, Equus, notable for its rapid karyotypic ev


An examination of the zoogeographic implications of the cladistic hypothesis here presented indicates a complex pattern of migration from North America to Eurasia during Blancan through late Pleistocene time, and a strong zoogeographical relationship between Africa and North America demonstrated by the equids.

Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases.

  • M. NeiW. Li
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1979
A mathematical model for the evolutionary change of restriction sites in mitochondrial DNA is developed and a measure called "nucleotide diversity" is proposed to express the degree of polymorphism in a population at the nucleotide level.

A simple reproducible method for prometaphase chromosome analysis

A method is described for the analysis of chromosomes in prophase and early metaphase, supplemented with 10% autologous plasma instead of fetal bovine serum, which has been tested on several hundred clinical samples on a routine basis.

Male mule foal qualifies as the offspring of a female mule and jack donkey.

The case of a cytogenetically verified female mule whose alleged male foal qualifies as offspring by a male donkey who is karyotypically a mule is reported here.

Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual

The content has been entirely recast to include nucleic-acid based methods selected as the most widely used and valuable in molecular and cellular biology laboratories.

Genetic investigations: tools for supporting breeding programme goals