Chromophore reorientation during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin: experimental methods and functional significance.


Light-induced isomerization leads to orientational changes of the retinylidene chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin in its binding pocket. The chromophore reorientation has been characterized by the following methods: polarized absorption spectroscopy in the visible, UV and IR; polarized resonance Raman scattering; solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic… (More)