Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation

  title={Chromium in the environment: factors affecting biological remediation},
  author={Adel M. Zayed and Norman Terry},
  journal={Plant and Soil},
Chromium, in the trivalent form (Cr(III)), is an important component of a balanced human and animal diet and its deficiency causes disturbance to the glucose and lipids metabolism in humans and animals. In contrast, hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) is highly toxic carcinogen and may cause death to animals and humans if ingested in large doses. Recently, concern about Cr as an environmental pollutant has been escalating due to its build up to toxic levels in the environment as a result of various… 
Chromium in Anthropogenically Polluted and Naturally Enriched Soils: A Review
Abstract Chromium (Cr) is a very important element examined for last decades on many expert fields. Its toxicity, mobility and bio-availability are strongly dependent on its oxidation state, Cr(III)
Chromium, an essential nutrient and pollutant: a review
The increased use of chromium (Cr) in several anthropogenic activities has led to the subsequent soil, surface water and ground water contamination. It has wide applications in the dyes, stainless
Aquatic phytoremediation strategies for chromium removal
The environment is increasingly becoming contaminated with chromium (Cr) from increased industrial activity, and this is a serious ecotoxicological concern worldwide. Cr causes serious pollution
Attenuation of chromium toxicity by bioremediation technology.
  • M. MohantyH. Patra
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • 2011
This chapter describes sources of environmental chromium contamination, and provides information about the toxic impact of chromium on plant growth and metabolism, and addresses different phytoremediation processes that are being studied for use worldwide, in contaminated regions, to address and mitigate Cr pollution.
Chromium in Agricultural Soils and Crops: A Review
The mobility and distribution of metals in the environment is related not only to their concentration but also to their availability in the environment. Most chromium (Cr) exists in oxidation states
Effect of hexavalent chromium on the environment and removal techniques: A review.
Toxicity of Chromium in Agricultural Crops with Respect to its Chemical Speciation-A Review
Contamination of toxic metals in the agricultural crops is a global dilemma. The metals enter in to the soil through various sources and get accumulated in agricultural crop plant parts and
Chromium: As an Environmental Pollutant
In recent years, contamination of the environment by chromium (Cr) has become a major area of concern. Chromium is the 17 most abundant element in the earth s mantle. Chromium is used on large scale
The Geomicrobiology of Chromium (VI) Pollution: Microbial Diversity and its Bioremediation Potential
The role and significance of microorganisms in environmental recycling activities marks geomicrobiology one of the essential branches within the environmental biotechnology field. Naturally occurring


Factors affecting chemical and biological reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a common environmental pollutant that is mobile in soils and is a known mutagen The trivalent form [Cr(III)] has no known mutagenic properties and is highly insoluble
Chromium accumulation, translocation and chemical speciation in vegetable crops
The XAS speciation analysis indicates that CrO42− is converted in the root to Cr3+ by all plants tested, and a hypothesis for the differential accumulation and identical translocation patterns of the two Cr ions is proposed.
Chromium accumulation, transport and toxicity in plants∗
The predominant pathway for human exposure to chromium in non‐occupationally exposed individuals is via food with a daily intake of around 30–100 μgd–1, with vegetables providing a major
Hydrogen peroxide effects on chromium oxidation state and solubility in four diverse, chromium-enriched soils.
Significant differences are demonstrated among Cr-contaminated soils in their capacity to release Cr(VI) upon chemical treatment with H2O2, which could be a hazardous consequence of using H1O2 for in situ remediation of chemically complex wastes, but could prove attractive for ex situ treatment (i.e., soil washing).
Chromium in the natural and human environments
Historical Perspectives (J. Nriagu). Biological Chemistry of Chromium (E. Nieboer & A. Jusys). Production and Uses of Chromium (J. Nriagu). Atmospheric Emissions of Chromium from Natural and
Chromium cycling in soils and water: links, gaps, and methods.
  • R. J. Bartlett
  • Environmental Science
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 1991
The major links in the cycling of chromium in soils and in natural waters are between chromium(III) and chromium (VI). Between the larger links are lesser links involving processes of mobilization
Environmental chemistry of chromium.
Behavior of chromium in soils. III. Oxidation
Because reduced Cr has been considered to be the stable form in soils, it was surprising to find that added trivalent Cr oxidizes readily to the hexavalent form under conditions prevalent in many
Canadian water quality guidelines for chromium
Canadian Water Quality Guidelines (CWQG) are numerical or narrative limits that protect designated water uses. Development of CWQG is based on review of chromium's properties, uses, fate in the
Phytoaccumulation of Trace Elements by Wetland Plants: I. Duckweed
There has been much interest recently in the use of constructed wetlands for the removal of toxic trace elements from wastewaters. Wetland plants play an important role in the trace elements removal