Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes.

@article{Anderson1998ChromiumGI,
  title={Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes.},
  author={R A Anderson},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Nutrition},
  year={1998},
  volume={17 6},
  pages={
          548-55
        }
}
  • R. Anderson
  • Published 1 December 1998
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Within the last 5 years chromium (Cr) has been shown to play a role in glucose intolerance, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM), and gestational diabetes. In addition, diabetes and the neuropathy of a patient on home parenteral nutrition were alleviated when supplemental Cr was added to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions. In a study conducted in China that has been supported by studies in the United States, supplemental Cr as Cr picolinate improved the blood glucose, insulin… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

CHROMIUM IN HEALTH AND DISEASES

TLDR
Further studies are required using large population size in each type of human disease and to establish a standardized procedure for measuring this metal on biological samples and to workout standard and easily implementation type protocol for supplementation based on its circulating level in blood.

Beneficial effects of chromium in people with type 2 diabetes, and urinary chromium response to glucose load as a possible indicator of status

TLDR
It was concluded that urinary Cr response to glucose load could be used as an indicator of chromium (Cr) status.

Chromium and glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients: Review of current evidence

TLDR
Clinical trial, cross -sectional, retrospective and prospective studies which were published during 1995 to 2014 were reviewed and showed that the consumption of high dose of chromium supplement during more than 12 weeks not only improves insulin sensitivity, but also alters body fat distribution and reduce weight gain trends in patients with diabetes.

Follow-up survey of people in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming supplemental chromium†

TLDR
Monitoring of the fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, and diabetic symptoms of 833 people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were monitored for up to 10 months following Cr supplementation, demonstrating that beneficial effects of supplemental Cr observed in a few months are also present after 10 months.

Control of steroid-induced diabetes with supplemental chromium†

TLDR
It is demonstrated that chromium may be beneficial in the control of steroid-induced diabetes and oral hypoglycemic medications and/or insulin were reduced one-half in patients prior to the initiation of supplemental chromium.

Trace mineral status and glycaemic control in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes

TLDR
Serum chromium level correlated inversely with fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA 1c , unlike the serum concentra-tion of zinc which had no significant correlation with either FBG or Hb a 1c .

Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes.

TLDR
Severe neuropathy and glucose intolerance of a patient on total parenteral nutrition, who was receiving currently recommended levels of chromium, were reversed by additional supplemental chromium.

Chromium supplements, glucose, and insulin responses.

TLDR
In the meta-analysis, chromium was not shown to lower normal blood glucose concentrations in healthy subjects, but the lack of glucose-lowering effect in healthy persons should not be perceived as a lack of efficacy, because chromium supplementation has been shown to maintain healthyBlood glucose concentrations, while increasing insulin sensitivity.

Chromium and insulin resistance

TLDR
Well–controlled human studies are needed to document an unequivocal effect of Cr on insulin sensitivity in human subjects, and Cr is a nutrient and not a therapeutic agent and therefore will only be of benefit to those whose problems are due to suboptimal intake of Cr.

Chromium supplementation improves glucose tolerance in diabetic Goto‐Kakizaki rats

TLDR
Testing whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions suggested that a threshold for Cr‐P effects was not identified, and future studies may use lower doses to find a threshold effect for improving glucose tolerance in diabetics.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES

Elevated Intakes of Supplemental Chromium Improve Glucose and Insulin Variables in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

TLDR
It is demonstrated that supplemental chromium had significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, glucose, insulin, and cholesterol variables in subjects with type 2 diabetes and was observed at levels higher than the upper limit of the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake.

Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition.

TLDR
Results suggest that relatively isolated chromium deficiency in man, hitherto poorly documented, causes 1) glucose intolerance, 2) inability to utilize glucose for energy, 3) neuropathy with normal insulin levels, 4) high free fatty acid levels and low respiratory quotient and, 5) abnormalities of nitrogen metabolism.

Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels

TLDR
The present results indicate that Cr supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance or serum lipid levels in elderly subjects with stable impaired glucose tolerance.

Chromium improves insulin response to glucose in rats.

Chromium in human nutrition: a review.

  • W. Mertz
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 1993
TLDR
This review summarizes the results of 15 controlled studies supplementing defined Cr(III) compounds to subjects with impaired glucose tolerance with the conclusion that chromium deficiency is a factor in the much discussed "Syndrome X" of insulin resistance.

Effects of oral chromium supplementation on the glucose tolerance of elderly human subjects.

Supplemental-chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets.

TLDR
It is demonstrated that consumption of diets in the lowest 25% of normal chromium intake lead to detrimental effects on glucose tolerance, insulin, and glucagon in subjects with mildly impaired glucose tolerance.
...