Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper

  title={Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper},
  author={Leor Halevi},
  pages={917 - 945}
It is one of the perverse ironies of history that in the early fifteenth century Mus lims were forced to react to the rising dominance of European paper. Four cen turies after the Muslims had learned the craft in Central Asia and long after they had developed new papermaking techniques, the commodity was still largely un known in Europe beyond the Alps and the Pyrenees. Writing around 1144, shortly after his pilgrimage from France to Santiago de Compostela, Peter the Venerable remarked with… 

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  • 2012
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    Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication
  • 2022
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    International Journal of Middle East Studies
  • 1984
As conceived by classical Muslim jurists, ijtihād is the exertion of mental energy in the search for a legal opinion to the extent that the faculties of the jurist become incapable of further effort.

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