Analysis was made of 37 cases of chondrosarcoma of the maxilla or the mandible. The most common complaint at initial presentation was the presence of a mass. Pain was a presenting symptom in less than half of the patients. The usual roentgenographic appearance was an ill-defined radiolucency with mottled areas of calcification. When teeth were involved, some cases showed a widened periodontal membrane space on periapical dental radiographs. Histologically, the tumors usually showed recognizable cartilage and a lobular growth pattern, but cellular evidence of malignancy was often subtle. Radical surgery was the treatment of choice. Prognosis appears best when such surgery is performed soon after the onset of symptoms. Also, patients presenting with mandibular tumors and with tumors of the better differentiated histologic grades enjoy a better survival time. Neck dissection is probably not warranted for chondrosarcoma of the jaws. Contrary to the relationship between these two tumors in other skeletal sites, the overall prognosis for chondrosarcoma of the jaws does not appear to be as good as that for osteosarcoma of the jaws.