Choline and cholinergic neurons.

@article{Blusztajn1983CholineAC,
  title={Choline and cholinergic neurons.},
  author={Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn and Richard J. Wurtman},
  journal={Science},
  year={1983},
  volume={221 4611},
  pages={
          614-20
        }
}
Mammalian neurons can synthesize choline by methylating phosphatidylethanolamine and hydrolyzing the resulting phosphatidylcholine. This process is stimulated by catecholamines. The phosphatidylethanolamine is synthesized in part from phosphatidylserine; hence the amino acids methionine (acting after conversion to S-adenosylmethionine) and serine can be the ultimate precursors of choline. Brain choline concentrations are generally higher than plasma concentrations, but depend on plasma… 
3.2 Choline and Its Products Acetylcholine and Phosphatidylcholine Choline
TLDR
Choline is principally metabolized in the liver to betaine, which provides a source of methyl groups for the regeneration of methionine and S‐adenosylmethionine, which leads to an increase in the levels of synaptic membrane within the brain.
Phosphatidylcholine: Endogenous Precursor of Choline
TLDR
Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is undoubtedly the largest and most important endogenous storage form of choline, and this chapter will concentrate on the mechanisms whereby such endogenous pools of phosphatidinylcholine serve as precursors of brain choline.
Effects of Exogenous Choline on Acetylcholine and Choline Contents and Release in Striatal Slices
TLDR
Results often support the hypothesis that the level of exogenous choline regulate ACh synthesis during periods of increased neuronal demand for the precursor or when choline supply to the neurons is reduced.
Phospholipid‐derived choline intermediates and acetylcholine synthesis in mouse brain synaptosomes
TLDR
The results suggest that ACh is effectively synthesized by free choline generated in synaptosomes by a coupling mechanism involving the high‐affinity choline uptake system.
Perinatal choline influences brain structure and function.
TLDR
Choline is critical during fetal development, when it influences stem cell proliferation and apoptosis, thereby altering brain structure and function (memory is permanently enhanced in rodents exposed to choline during the latter part of gestation).
Choline Transporter 1 Maintains Cholinergic Function in Choline Acetyltransferase Haploinsufficiency
TLDR
Increased ChT activity may compensate for the reduced ChAT activity in Chat+/- mice, contributing to the maintenance of apparently normal cholinergic function as reflected by normal performance of these mice in several behavioral assays.
Sexually Dimorphic Activation of Liver and Brain Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase by Dietary Choline Deficiency
TLDR
Activation of the PE methylation pathway in female brain may constitute a compensatory mechanism to sustain PC synthesis during choline deficiency.
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References

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TLDR
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TLDR
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