Choline Diet and Its Gut Microbe-Derived Metabolite, Trimethylamine N-Oxide, Exacerbate Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure.

@article{Organ2016CholineDA,
  title={Choline Diet and Its Gut Microbe-Derived Metabolite, Trimethylamine N-Oxide, Exacerbate Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Failure.},
  author={Chelsea L. Organ and Hiroyuki Otsuka and Shashi Bhushan and Zeneng Wang and Jessica Bradley and Rishi Trivedi and David J. Polhemus and Weihong Tang and Yuping Wu and Stanley L. Hazen and David Joseph Lefer},
  journal={Circulation. Heart failure},
  year={2016},
  volume={9 1},
  pages={e002314}
}
BACKGROUND Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients, is both elevated in the circulation of patients having heart failure and heralds worse overall prognosis. In animal studies, dietary choline or TMAO significantly accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE-deficient mice, and reduction in TMAO levels inhibits atherosclerosis development in the low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse… CONTINUE READING
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