Choline, an essential nutrient for humans.

@article{Zeisel1991CholineAE,
  title={Choline, an essential nutrient for humans.},
  author={Steven H Zeisel and Kerry-Ann da Costa and Peter D. Franklin and Edward A. Alexander and J. Thomas Lamont and Nancy F. Sheard and A Beiser},
  journal={FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology},
  year={1991},
  volume={5 7},
  pages={
          2093-8
        }
}
  • S. Zeisel, K. da Costa, +4 authors A. Beiser
  • Published 1991
  • Biology, Medicine
  • FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Choline is required to make essential membrane phospholipids. [...] Key Method Healthy male volunteers were hospitalized and fed a semisynthetic diet devoid of choline supplemented with 500 mg/day choline for 1 wk. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, one that continued to receive choline (control), and the other that received no choline (deficient) for three additional wk. During the 5th wk of the study all subjects received choline.Expand

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It is reported that plasma choline and betaine concentrations increase during pregnancy and that this is highly correlated with an increase in plasma tHcy concentrations, an unexpected and important observation, because Hcy is thought to be toxic for the fetus. Expand
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The data suggest that adaptation to choline deprivation is not restricted to liver via choline recycling but also occurs in the whole animal through choline redistribution, as reported in mice that lack both PEMT and MDR2. Expand
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Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. In 1998 the National Academy of Sciences, USA, issued a report identifying choline as a required nutrient for humans andExpand
Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis.
TLDR
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is made in mammalian cells from choline via the CDP-choline pathway and is required for normal very low density lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes. Expand
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TLDR
It is concluded that malnourished humans who eat no choline have diminished stores of plasma (and possibly tissue) choline. Expand
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TLDR
The findings confirm that the fatty liver of choline deficiency is the result of an impairment in the transport of triglyceride from the liver, and support the hypothesis that it occurs because of a restriction in the synthesis of phosphatidyl choline which is required for lipoprotein formatio... Expand
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TLDR
Measurement of the in vivo methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine by incorporation of [1,2-14C]ethanolamine into phosph atidylcholine indicates that the methylation pathway is markedly depressed in methyl deficiency, and control of transmethylation in accordance with the availability of substrates, phosphatideanolamine, or S-adenosylmethionine, and the level of S- adenosylhomocysteine is discussed. Expand
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TLDR
The results suggest a lack of adaptive change in the levels of these phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes as a result of choline deficiency. Expand
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TLDR
It is suggested that hepatic secretion of VLDL, but not HDL, requires active phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, and the inhibitory effect of choline deficiency on V LDL secretion can be compensated by the methylation of phosphatodylethanolamine. Expand
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TLDR
Only one pathway of lecithin synthesis de novo is responsive to changes in dietary choline and to the administration of ethanol, and choline in large amounts prevents or decreases ethanol-induced changes in phospholipid metabolism. Expand
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  • Chemistry, Medicine
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TLDR
Although choline supplementation does not alter the levels of ACh in brain under normal conditions, it does appear to support ACh synthesis during drug-induced increases in neuronal activity, an effect most likely mediated by alterations in the metabolism of choline-containing phospholipids. Expand
Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Effect of different substrates.
TLDR
The data indicate that the cytidylytransferase reactions are rate-limiting steps in the synthesis of phosph atidylethanolamine and probably also phosphatidylcholine, and the availability of diacylglycerol and its fatty acid composition may significantly affect the rate of phospholipid synthesis. Expand
Role of phosphatidylethanolamine methylation in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by hepatocytes isolated from choline‐deficient rats
TLDR
The results indicate that the transmethylase pathway may be substituted for the CDP-choline pathway to supply the PC moiety for lipoproteins when a high cellular SAM pool is maintained by addition of the methyl donor to the incubation medium. Expand
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TLDR
The fatty liver observed in CD rats results from an impaired release of hepatic triglycerides into plasma and considerably less radioactivity accumulated in plasma triglycerides and phospholipids of CD rats than of CS animals. Expand
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