Cholesterol crystals impede nerve repair

  title={Cholesterol crystals impede nerve repair},
  author={Yanan Chen and Brian Popko},
  pages={635 - 636}
Cholesterol deposits in phagocytic cells disrupt the repair of demyelinated axons Damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve axons represents the pathological hallmark of the neurological disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) and is thought to contribute to a number of other nervous system maladies (1). Remyelination, a regenerative process that forms new myelin sheaths around demyelinated axons, restores nerve function and reverses the clinical manifestations associated with demyelination (2… 
4 Citations
Microglial Phagocytosis—Rational but Challenging Therapeutic Target in Multiple Sclerosis
A comprehensive review of microglial myelin Phagocytosis and its involvement in MS development and repair is provided and the potential of phagocytic-mediated therapeutic approaches is discussed and their modulation is encouraged as a novel and rational approach to ameliorate MS-associated pathology.
Extrinsic Factors Driving Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cell Progression in CNS Development and Injury
The recent findings in OL biology are reviewed in the context of the CNS physiological and pathological conditions, focusing on extrinsic factors that facilitate OL development and regeneration.
Comprehensive Analysis of Age-related Changes in Lipid Metabolism and Myelin Sheath Formation in Sciatic Nerves.
Lipid metabolism might play an important role in maintaining the structure and physiological function in sciatic nerves during aging and could be candidates for nerve aging research.
Neutrophils promote clearance of nuclear debris following acid-induced lung injury.
A novel mechanism as part of the inflammatory response is shown, in which neutrophils engulf and degrade extracellular DNA fragments and allow for optimal organ repair.


Defective cholesterol clearance limits remyelination in the aged central nervous system
It is found that old mice fail to resolve the inflammatory response initiated after myelin damage, and drugs being developed to promote cholesterol clearance in human atherosclerosis lesions may also be good candidates for regenerative medicine in the CNS.
Retinoid X receptor activation reverses age-related deficiencies in myelin debris phagocytosis and remyelination.
The retinoid X receptor pathway is revealed as a positive regulator of myelin debris clearance and a key player in the age-related decline in remyelination that may be targeted by available or newly-developed therapeutics.
M2 microglia and macrophages drive oligodendrocyte differentiation during CNS remyelination
It is found that a switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant response occurred in microglia and peripherally derived macrophages as remyelination started and activin-A is identified as a therapeutic target for CNS regeneration.
Harnessing the integrated stress response for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
It is shown that the ISR, an innate protective pathway that maintains proteostasis, may be effectively harnessed to aid in the protection of oligodendrocytes and myelin during inflammation, and may offer an important component in halting the progression of multiple sclerosis.
Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination
The results indicate that RXR-γ is a positive regulator of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and remyelination and might be a pharmacological target for regenerative therapy in the CNS.
Oligodendrocytes: Myelination and Axonal Support.
  • M. Simons, K. Nave
  • Biology, Medicine
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology
  • 2015
The current understanding of how myelin is generated and also the role of oligodendrocytes in supporting the long-term integrity of myelinated axons are summarized.
Oligodendrocyte Development and Plasticity.
Adult OPCs respond to injury or disease by accelerating their cell cycle and increasing production of OLs to replace lost myelin, which is important in some forms of plasticity and learning, for example, motor learning.
Liver X receptors alpha and beta promote myelination and remyelination in the cerebellum
It is demonstrated that LXRs intervene both in oligodendroglial cell maturation and in the transcriptional control of myelin gene expression during (re)myelination processes, which strongly support a new role of LXRs as positive modulators in central ( re)myelinination processes.
Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines
Understanding of the detailed mechanisms that underlie remyelination has developed considerably, and this has led to recent drug-based and cell-based clinical trials for myelin diseases and opened up hitherto unrecognized opportunities for drug- based approaches to therapeutically enhance remYelination.