Cholera in the 21st century

  title={Cholera in the 21st century},
  author={Richelle C. Charles and Edward Thomas Ryan},
  journal={Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases},
  • R. Charles, E. Ryan
  • Published 1 October 2011
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Purpose of review This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of biologic and environmental factors that shape current cholera outbreaks, advances in our understanding of host–pathogen interactions during cholera, and recent evolution of current treatment and cholera prevention strategies. Recent findings New research studies have improved our understanding of a number of dynamic factors that shape the ecology of Vibrio cholerae and influence its transmission, including the… 
The Impact of Climate Change on Cholera: A Review on the Global Status and Future Challenges
Water ecosystems can be rather sensitive to evolving or sudden changes in weather parameters. These changes can result in alterations in the natural habitat of pathogens, vectors, and human hosts, as
Staying Alive: Vibrio cholerae's Cycle of Environmental Survival, Transmission, and Dissemination.
This chapter focuses on the model environmental pathogen Vibrio cholerae to describe recent advances in understanding of how pathogens survive between hosts and to highlight the processes necessary to support the cycle of environmental survival, transmission, and dissemination.
The Role of Temperature in the Environmental Survival and Transmission of Vibrio cholerae
Mechanisms that promote the survival of V. cholerae in the environment and facilitate the transmission of this pathogen to human hosts are described.
Insights from Natural Infection-Derived Immunity to Cholera Instruct Vaccine Efforts
A thorough understanding of the bacterium-host interactions that lead to disease, the immune responses induced, and the mechanisms that mediate protection against subsequent V. cholerae illness can help guide efforts to develop even more effective vaccines.
Modeling the Influence of Environment and Intervention on Cholera in Haiti
It appears that, in the Ouest region, tidal influences play a significant role in the dynamics of the disease, and vaccination is best when done in the early spring, and as early as possible in the epidemic.
Humans surviving cholera develop antibodies against Vibrio cholerae O-specific polysaccharide that inhibit pathogen motility
It is demonstrated that sera, polyclonal antibody fractions, and OSP-specific monoclonal antibodies recovered from humans surviving cholera in Bangladesh block V. cholerae motility and are associated with protection against challenge in a motility-dependent manner.
Adherence to Intestinal Cells Promotes Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae.
It is demonstrated here that even during infection, biofilm genes are upregulated, and microscopic observation indicated that biofilm formation is initiated almost immediately after adherence of V. cholerae to intestinal cells.
Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas
The main objective of this overview is to provide information to help European travelers to stay healthy while abroad, and thus to reduce the potential importation of these diseases and their consequent implications for public health and society.
Results suggest that V. cholerae can persist in the VBNC state in this Caribbean environment and revert to a cultivable form under favorable conditions and might represent a critical step in cholera transmission in susceptible areas.


Hyperinfectivity: A Critical Element in the Ability of V. cholerae to Cause Epidemics?
To have maximal impact on limiting epidemic spread of cholera, interventions should be targeted toward minimizing risk of transmission of the short-lived, hyperinfectious form of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.
Self-limiting nature of seasonal cholera epidemics: Role of host-mediated amplification of phage
Host-mediated phage amplification during the cholera epidemic likely contributed to increased environmental phage abundance, decreased load of environmental V. cholerae and, hence, the collapse of the epidemic.
Cholera's western front
Susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae Infection in a Cohort of Household Contacts of Patients with Cholera in Bangladesh
The data suggest that susceptibility to V. cholerae infection is determined by a combination of immunologic, nutritional, and genetic characteristics; additional factors that influence susceptibility to cholera remain unidentified.
Host-induced epidemic spread of the cholera bacterium
The factors that enhance the transmission of pathogens during epidemic spread are ill defined. Water-borne spread of the diarrhoeal disease cholera occurs rapidly in nature, whereas infection of
The Cholera Pandemic, Still with Us after Half a Century: Time to Rethink
  • E. Ryan
  • Medicine, Political Science
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases
  • 2011
This issue contains two important articles that will help inform the discussions on ways to respond to the global cholera situation, as this pandemic seems to be picking up speed.
Transmissibility of cholera: in vivo-formed biofilms and their relationship to infectivity and persistence in the environment.
The results of this study support a model of cholera transmission in which in vivo-formed biofilms contribute to enhanced infectivity and environmental persistence of pathogenic V. cholerae.
Development of Peru-15 (CholeraGarde®), a live-attenuated oral cholera vaccine: 1991–2009
The vaccine has been tested in infants of 9 months of age where a single 108 CFU dose was safe and immunogenic while a tenfold lower dose was not, and Excretion of the strain was higher in adults in the USA and low in Bangladeshi participants in all age groups.
Seasonal epidemics of cholera inversely correlate with the prevalence of environmental cholera phages.
The data support the conclusion that cholERA phages can influence cholera seasonality and may also play a role in emergence of new V. cholerae pandemic serogroups or clones.
Spatiotemporal Analysis of Acid Adaptation-Mediated Vibrio cholerae Hyperinfectivity
These studies suggest that the increased infectivity of acid-adapted V. cholerae is due to a more rapid onset of multiplication and/or to an increased multiplication rate within the infant mouse intestine.