Cholera

@article{Clemens2017Cholera,
  title={Cholera},
  author={John D Clemens and Gopinath Balakrish Nair and Tahmeed Ahmed and Firdausi Qadri and Jan Holmgren},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2017},
  volume={390},
  pages={1539-1549}
}
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well… 
Epidemiology and Antibiogram Profile of Vibrio cholerae Isolates between 2004-2013 from Odisha, India.
TLDR
The emergence of multiple drug-resistant V. cholerae strains may significantly influence the control of future outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in this region.
Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae
TLDR
It is concluded that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species and may play a role in its global dissemination.
Oral cholera vaccines and their impact on the global burden of disease
  • T. Wierzba
  • Medicine
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics
  • 2018
TLDR
Advances in packaging and vaccine temperature control, reduced vaccine costs, the inclusion of pregnant women in vaccine campaigns, and a targeted approach to high incidence endemic areas are further increasing the usefulness of these vaccines for reducing the global cholera burden.
Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial)
TLDR
The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of Cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.
Vibrio cholerae O139 persists in Dhaka, Bangladesh since 1993
TLDR
Most isolates of O139 remained sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin, but they became resistant to erythromycin starting in 2009.
Vibrio cholerae Transmits Through Water Among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients in Cholera Endemic Coastal Villages of Bangladesh, 2015–2016 (CHoBI7 Trial)
TLDR
Transmission of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 through drinking water in cholera endemic rural settings underscores the urgent need for evidence based water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions promoting safe drinking water to prevent morbidity and mortality related to cholERA and other enteric infections in Bangladesh.
Herbal Compounds-An Alternative for Multi-Drug Resistant Vibrio Cholerae
TLDR
Flux pumps, spontaneous chromosomal mutation, conjugative plasmids, SXT elements and integrons are discussed as an antibiotics resistant mechanism, and the utility of natural remedies against V. cholerae infection is focused on.
Haitian Variant Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Manifest Higher Virulence in Animal Models
TLDR
This study indicated that these virulence features of the Haitian variant strain may have some association with the severe clinical outcome of the cholera patients in different parts of the world.
Pathways to a policy for cholera control in India.
TLDR
The availability and affordability of an oral cholera vaccine in India offers new opportunities to control an important public health problem.
Characterization of environmental Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in the Pearl River Estuary, China.
TLDR
To identify and characterize V. cholerae O1 and O139 in the Pearl River Estuary at a time when active disease was not being identified, despite prior occurrence of epidemic cholera in the region, there was no evidence of seasonality.
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TLDR
The vaccine can be expected to prevent 7% or less of cases of travellers' diarrhoea and should not be used for this purpose, and vaccination should be considered only for those working in relief or refugee settings or for those who are travelling in cholera-epidemic areas and who will be unable to obtain prompt medical care.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Single-dose azithromycin was effective in the treatment of severe cholera in adults and the lack of efficacy of ciprofloxacin may result from its diminished activity against V. cholerae O1 strains currently circulating in Bangladesh.
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