Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide induces panic attacks in patients with panic disorder.

  title={Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide induces panic attacks in patients with panic disorder.},
  author={Jacques Bradwejn and Diana Koszycki and Greg B Meterissian},
  journal={Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie},
  volume={35 1},
Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) and placebo were injected to 11 panic disorder patients. CCK-4 induced a panic attack identical to spontaneous panic attacks in all patients; placebo did not induce any attacks. The role of CCK-4 in anxiety disorders is discussed. 

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