Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.

  title={Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.},
  author={Roy F. Baumeister},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={46 3},
  • R. Baumeister
  • Published 1 March 1984
  • Psychology
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Choking under pressure is defined as performance decrements under circumstances that increase the importance of good or improved performance. A model for choking on coordination and skill tasks is proposed, holding that the pressure increases the conscious attention to the performer's own process of performance and that this increased conscious attention disrupts the automatic or overlearned nature of the execution. Six experiments provided data consistent with this model. Three studies showed… 

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