Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.

@article{Baumeister1984ChokingUP,
  title={Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.},
  author={R. Baumeister},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1984},
  volume={46 3},
  pages={
          610-20
        }
}
  • R. Baumeister
  • Published 1984
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Choking under pressure is defined as performance decrements under circumstances that increase the importance of good or improved performance. A model for choking on coordination and skill tasks is proposed, holding that the pressure increases the conscious attention to the performer's own process of performance and that this increased conscious attention disrupts the automatic or overlearned nature of the execution. Six experiments provided data consistent with this model. Three studies showed… Expand

Topics from this paper

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  • Psychology, Medicine
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Results show that pressure caused choking when participants were not distracted and had not been adapted to self awareness and this effect was attenuated when cognitive load was increased or when self-awareness adaptation had occurred. Expand
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  • S. Beilock, T. Carr
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of experimental psychology. General
  • 2001
TLDR
Findings support explicit monitoring theories of choking and the popular but infrequently tested belief that attending to proceduralized skills hurts performance. Expand
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TLDR
The authors propose that aspects of the pressure situation itself can lead to distraction and/or explicit monitoring, differentially harming skills that rely more or less on working memory and attentional control. Expand
Self-Consciousness, Self-presentation, and Performance Under Pressure: Who Chokes, and When?
Choking under pressure by persons low and high in self-consciousness was examined as a function of two sources of performance pressure: audience and performance feedback. Subjects competed with anExpand
Choking on the Money
TLDR
Conurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that increased activity in ventral midbrain, a brain area associated with incentive motivation and basic reward responding, correlated with both reduced number of captures and increased number of near-misses associated with imminent high rewards. Expand
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