Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Urban Community of Meerut City, India
BACKGROUND A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among urinary isolates in the Garhwal region of Uttaranchal. AIMS To identify the most appropriate antibiotic for empirical treatment of community-acquired acute cystitis on the basis of local antimicrobial sensitivity profile. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A prospective clinico-microbiological study including all clinically diagnosed patients with community acquired acute cystitis attending a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of three years. METHODS AND MATERIAL Clean-catch midstream urine specimens, from 524 non-pregnant women with community-acquired acute cystitis, were subjected to semi-quantitative culture and antibiotic susceptibility by the Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. A survey was also conducted on 30 randomly selected local practitioners, to know the prevalent prescribing habits in this condition. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The difference between the susceptibility rates of E. coli isolates to Nitrofurantoin and the other commonly prescribed antibiotics was analysed by applying the z test for proportion. RESULTS 354 (67.5%) specimens yielded significant growth of E. coli.> 35% of the urinary E.coli isolates were resistant to the fluoroquinolones, which were found to be the most commonly used empirical antibiotics in acute cystitis. Resistance was minimum against Nitrofurantoin (9.3%, 33) and Amikacin (11.0%,39).> 80% of the fluoroquinolone-resistant strains were found to be sensitive to Nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION The best in vitro susceptibility profile in our study has been shown by Nitrofurantoin and a significantly high proportion of the urinary E. coli isolates have already developed resistance to the currently prescribed empirical antibiotics, viz. the fluoroquinolones. In view of these in vitro susceptibility patterns, a transition in empirical therapy appears imminent.